Jaipur was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II who was a lover of astronomy, mathematics and astrophysics. The city was named after him when he shifted the capital from Amer to Jaipur due to growing population and scarcity of water. Jaipur was a planned city and the layout was based on several traditional architectural treatises like the Vaastu Shaastra. In 1876, during the regime of Sawai Ram Singh, the whole city was painted pink to welcome Edward, Prince of Wales. Even today, these buildings remain painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance. In 1922, the throne was taken over by Man Singh II, during his reign buildings like secretariat, schools, and hospitals were built. After India got independence, Jaipur merged with Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner to form the largest state of India with Jaipur as its capital.
Jaipur is located in the eastern part of Rajasthan at the co-rdinates of 26.92Â°N 75.82Â°E. It has an average elevation of 431 metres (1417 ft). The rivers Banas and Banganga pass through the district.
By air - Jaipur Airport at a distance of around 11 km from the city center is the main air gateway to Jaipur. There are direct flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Aurangabad, and some other cities from Jaipur.
By rail - There are many trains that connect Jaipur and other cities in Rajasthan; Palace on Wheels is a dedicated train for tourists. Other important trains include, Shatabdi Express and Pink City Express both from Delhi.
By road - From Delhi, there is a direct and well-maintained road to Jaipur. City is connected to most of the tourist destinations in Rajasthan as well as Agra. Jaipur is part of the Golden Travel Circuit of India that includes Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur. Most of the tours are conducted either through the buses or trains.
Jaipur has a semi-arid hot climate with monsoon months bringing in 650mm of rain from June to September, the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 Â°C and the winter months of November to February are chilly with average temperatures ranging from 15 to 18 Â°C.
Jaipur district is a centre for both traditional and modern industries. It is famous as a large exporter of gold, diamond and stone jewellery in Asia it is the only city finishing blue diamond, or tanzanite, in the world. It is a fast developing city and has every necessary infrastructure like airports, banks and educational institutes. Jaipur is a hub of educational activities from primary level to college level education. University of Rajasthan in Jaipur has completed its 60 years. Jaipur district is receiving the hydro-electric power, supplied by the Chambal Hydel System. Out of total 2,131 villages in the district, all were electrified (as on March 2000).
Jaipur was developed as India's first ever planned city by Raja Jai Singh with the help of chief architect from Bengal, Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya. Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, following the principles of Shilpa Shastra (the science of Indian architecture), and referencing the ancient Indian knowledge on astronomy, devised the planning of the entire new capital. The town of Jaipur is built in the form of an eight-part Mandala known as the 'Pithapada'.
The city was divided into nine blocks, of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge fortification walls were made along with seven strong gates for the purpose of security of the city. Jaipur city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six sectors separated by broad streets of 111 feet. This number is a holy number in Hinduism and hence considered lucky.
Jaipur is largely populated by the Hindu community, closely followed by a substantial percentage of Muslims, Sikhs and Jains. Hindi and Rajasthani are the most commonly spoken languages. The Rajasthani culture is colourful and flamboyant. It is rich in heritage. Famous dances of Jaipur include Ghoomar and Chari; the Chari dancers dance gracefully on a pot with a lit diya on their head. Traditional instruments like Sarangi, Ektara, and Jhalar are also played while singing folk songs. Food or the local delicacies of Jaipur also reveal the culture of the city. Jaipur's utterly delicious mangodi, papad, khichdi, buttermilk, sohan halwa have no match.
The prominent festivals celebrated are:
Teej- This festival is dedicated to Lord Shiva and Parvati; celebrated during the month of monsoon July-August by married women who pray for a long and happy marital life.
Gangaur fair- Idols of Issar and Gangaur, manifestations of Shiva and Parvati, are worshipped by women, particularly those unmarried women who wish for a consort of the likes of Shiva.
Elephant festival- This is celebrated during the month of Holi. The elephants are caparisoned, their bodies painted with floral decorations by the mahouts and paraded around with great pomp.
The lac bangles are crafted by the Manihar community who are traditional Muslim bangle makers. Many of them were rajputs who had converted to Islam. The community speaks Shaikawati dialect of Rajasthani.
The city is one of the most sought after destinations. It is famous for its architecture, vibrant handicrafts and arts.
Hawa Mahal - The palace of winds was built in 1799 A.D by Maharaja Pratap Singh. This five storied pyramid shaped structure is made up of small casements, each with tine windows and arched roofs with hanging cornices, exquisitely modeled and carved. This unusual structure is more like a screen than a palace, its top three stories are just a single room thick and at the base are two courtyards.Built at a time when ladies of the royal household observed very strict pardaa, this unusual palace, with its screened balconies provided them with an opportunity to watch processions and other activities on the streets without being observed themselves.
Jal Mahal - The lake palace was built in the middle of Man Sagar Lake near Amber. There was a natural depression in earth where the rain water of surrounded Aravali Hills was collected. No man made construction was there till 16th century. Natural beauty of lake, surrounded Aravali hills, lush green mountains, and migratory birds attracted Sawai Pratap Singh, the then-ruler of Amber. In 1799 AD, Sawai Pratap Singh decided to convert Man Sagar Lake in a pleasure spot; hence, he built Jal Mahal.
Jantar Mantar - This fascinating observatory was constructed in the year 1728 by Maharja Sawai Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur. He was a learned person and a great astrologer. He acquainted himself thoroughly with religion, philosophy, art, architecture, Hindu, Greek, Muslim and European schools of astronomy and astrology. He thoroughly studied Ptolemy's Syntaxis, De La Hire's Tabulae, Newton's Principia, Euclid's Clements, Mirza Ulugh Beg's Astronomical Tables, Master works of Aryabhatta, Varahmihir, Brahamgupt, and Bhaskaracharya. UNESCO inscribed Jantar Mantar Jaipur in the list of World Heritage in July 2010.