Thewa is a 400 year old art of creating gold filigree on a coloured molten glass base. The patterns in this slender latticework of gold are inspired from nature and mythology. This inbred art is exclusively practiced only by the Sonis or goldsmiths of Nathulal Soni family.

Usage

The initial usage of Thewa art was to adorn chests and boxes gifted to royalty. Today the craftsmen' expertise have extended to photo frames, mirrors, cufflinks, brooches, trays, plates and personal accessories like rings and necklaces which are adorned by men and women alike.

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Significance

he skyrocketing prices of gold have made this art appealing to people who look for pocket-friendly value and design.Though the amount of gold used is minimal, the eventual product gives an impression of a gold-rich heavily ornamented piece. A 4' X 6' photo frame requires only 5-6 grams of gold, but it gives the illusion of a gold feast to the eyes. The entire procedure is meticulously carried out in daylight only.
The beauty of Thewa also lies in the fact that it is pure technique which gives birth to it. The raw materials are simple and few. The amount of work and skill that goes into handcrafting each piece adds immense value to it. There is no other form of art which sculpts out day to day life, battles, legends and hunting expeditions in meticulous detail on such a small surface.
The Sonis are very particular about the craft honed by their ancestors. This art is passed on only to  the men of the family. The fear of skill getting diluted with marriage into other families is what keeps them from divulging to the daughters. The training starts at the early age of ten for the boys.
Thewa art has won nine National Awards since 1966 and has gathered fame around the world. It is displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. A few 250 year old pieces are said to be a part of the Queen Elizabeth's collection.The Indian Government has issued a stamp in 2002 featuring a splendid piece of Thewa art on a plate.
These honours are trivial before the dedication of the artists who engage in this art which demands enormous precision. Shri Giresh Raj Soni, a descendent, explains the immeasurable patience that this art bestows, in these words ''I've lost the ability to ever get angry.

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Myths & Legends

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History

The craft originated in a small estate called Deolia in the district of Chittorgarh (Rajasthan). Prince Bika of Mewar, the ruler, shifted his capital to Pratapgarh, 16 kms to the east, due to scarcity of water. Subsequently, a community of artisans came to settle in this region too. In 1707, a goldsmith amongst these artisans by the name of Nathu Lal Sonewal designed this style of gold-work. It soon caught the fancy of kings and princes and Maharaja Sumant Singh patronized this art in 1765 and granted a jagir (land) to the family of Nathu Lal Sonewal. The Maharaja conferred the title of Rajsoni (Royal goldsmith) on him. His descendents have internalised this craft since then.
It was soon noticed by the British women during the Victorian times. They bought Thewa jewellery and also carried it back with them to their homeland. Thewa was recognised by European jewellery historians for its finesse and skill.
The Soni family later shifted to Mandsaur, a bigger city with more opportunities for their art.

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Design

A 23 karat gold metal sheet is traced with patterns which are mythological, religious or depicting daily events. Artisan also take inspiration from minituare paintings. Certain motifs reflect events like hunting scenes of the kings and patrons, with the hunting party, animals and birds amidst delicate foliage. This is called a shikargah. The depictions of royalty proudly portrays Maharana Pratap, his famous horse Chetak,the palanquins, elephants and rest of the extravagance in minute details.The mythological plethora involves popular subjects such as Srinathji, a form of Krishna installed at Nathdwara, Radha-Krishna, Ram parivar, Hanuman, Mahadev and the mother goddesses.

Apart from the traditional designs, Thewa has also adapted to the recent times. It has blended many other techniques like Meenakari, diamond setting along with various materials like beads and threads to bring about a contemporary flavour. Thewa in jewellery is more in vogue today than other traditional products and the favoured patterns are floral trellises, peacocks and elephants

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Challenges

The skill of making Thewa was kept a family secret. It was ardently reserved only to the men of the Nathu lal Soni family over generations.The daughters and son-in-laws too are kept out of the circle to avoid the skill from spreading out. Even researchers were not given details of the exact process. For this reason the art is not able to reach up to the widespread demands.

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