Wooden blocks- The wood blocks made from seasoned teak wood are sourced from the towns of 'Pethapur', 'Ferozabad' and 'Sanganer'.
Dyes- Natural as well as synthetic dyes such as pigment dyes, discharge dyes, reactive dyes and vegetable dyes are used.
Khar or Starch- It is used along with castor oil to treat the fabric before being washed out.
Castor oil- Used along with starch to treat the fabric.
Harda- This is used to give the fabric an off white color.
Fitkari or Alum- It is mixed along with indigo dye to achieve a green color and mixed with black to get a chocolate brown color.
Iron- Iron is heated and put in water to obtain the black color from where it is singes. The rust is also used for color.
Glue- It is mixed with pigment binder to create a thick viscous liquid. This gives the color tray a soft base which helps to spread color evenly on the wooden block.
Newspaper- The printed fabric is rolled up inside newspaper sheets to prevent the dye from spreading onto other layers.
Coarse piece of cotton cloth- It is used inside a tray containing the dye. The cloth soaks up the dye and blocks are pressed on it instead of direct dye application. This prevents dripping of color.
As the fabric is washed in water mixed with starch solution, water wastage is involved. Measures should be taken to reuse the water for other purposes. The remaining dyes or colors are not wasted as they can be mixed with kerosene and re-used.
Tools & Technology
Wooden blocks- Made of seasoned teak wood, the wooden blocks are the main tools of the printers. These blocks are carved in accordance to the designs given by the craftsmen in Pethapur, Ferozabad or Sanganer and are etched on the underside of the block. About two to three holes are drilled vertically and horizontally across the body of the block, which ensures free air passage and release of excess printing paste. This special feature is unique to these blocks.
Dyeing Trays- Trays made of wood or plastic are used to fill the dye and it is mixed with the help of various ladles. A thin bamboo trellis is fixed into the tray of dye mixture and this holds a coarse piece of cotton cloth. The cloth has been soaked in dye and the blocks are pressed onto it, rather than being dipped in the solution. This enables the dye to spread more evenly onto the block and not drip.
Printing tables- These are raised wooden blocks and are 5 feet by 3 feet in dimension. Bricks and smaller wooden blocks are used to uniformly raise this platform by 9 inches. Printing begins on these after they are covered with layers of plain cloth and jute for protection.
Paper Stencils- Paper stencils are used for outlining the border designs, in case of apparels like kurtas.
Metal Pins- The fabric to be printed is stretched out on a wooden table uniformly and fastened using strong metal pins.
Wooden trolley- It is used to store colors on its racks and the printer drags the trolley along as he prints.
Boilers- These are used to steam printed fabric and fasten their colors.
Bamboo trellis- A thin bamboo trellis is fixed into the tray with dye mixture to hold a coarse piece of cotton cloth.
Before printing begins, the fabric has to be treated where the fabric is treated with 'Khar' (starch) and castor oil. It is then washed thoroughly to remove the factory starch. Later it is treated with 'Harda' to achieve an off white tint to the fabric. If the natural grey of the fabric is not desired then it is bleached to obtain a stark white color. The fabric is also sometimes dyed to get a base color at this stage and washed to remove excess dye. It is then stretched evenly over a wooden table and fastened uniformly using strong pins.
Iron is heated and put in water to obtain the black color from where it is singes. The rust obtained from iron is also used for color. Alum also known as 'Fitkari' is mixed with Indigo to get a green color, and mixed with black to get a chocolate brown color.
The wooden blocks are used at this stage. The Color is kept in a tray on a wheeled wooden trolley with racks which the printer drags along as he works. The tray of color rests on another tray which contains a thick viscous liquid made from the pigment binder and glue. This gives the color tray a soft base which helps to spread color evenly on the wooden block. The fabric is printed by hand from left to right. Different printers/ craftsmen are involved in the stages.
One layer of blocks is pressed appropriately with adequate pressure to get the pattern. This is repeated as per requirement. In case another set of prints is needed, this is done by the other craftsman. Paper stencils are placed on the fabric for outlining the border designs, in case of apparels like 'Kurtas'. Approximately 30 to 35 m of a single color fabric, per day is finished by one person.
After the block printing is done; the fabric is then dried in the sun. It is rolled in newspaper to prevent the dye from spilling on to other layers and is then steamed in boilers. The fabric is again washed in large quantities of water and finally dried. The process is finished by ironing as this makes the color become permanent.