The Jawaja dhurries are woven using cotton yarns that are first dyed in the required hues. These are then woven together by the craftsmen on a horizontal loom. A couple of craftsmen are required to work on the weaving, both in stages and in tandem, to craft the dhurries efficiently. The marketing and sale of the dhurries are now handled by the craftsmen themselves, and are dispatched and sold according to order.

Raw Materials

Cotton yarn - single, double twisted or mercerized cotton is used where the counts used are medium (30's, 40's) and coarse counts (20's and below).

Woolen yarn- Mill-spun yarn is used in greater quantity than hand-spun yarn since the hand-spun ones are not of superior quality and does not absorb colors well. The mill spun yarn is also evenly spun.
Jute twine- In products of lower quality, jute twine forms the weft and forms the lower portion of the carpet. The material adds strength to the carpet and enhances its ability to withstand pressure. 
Dyes- The dhurries are dyed with synthetic dyes and are sourced from Beawar.
Fuel- Dried Cactus pieces or wood is used as fuel to heat the vats of dye.




Tools & Technology

Fly shuttle loom - It is the main tool for the weavers in making the dhurries.
Charkha or winding wheel - It is used to transfer yarn from creels to bobbins.
Carpet loom - It consists of a pair of horizontal wooden rollers or beams, supported by two flat poles which can revolve. Weaving is done between these horizontal rollers.
Chura or round-pile cutter - It is a short knife with a semi circular pile and a wooden handle and is made of tempered steel. It is used for cutting the pile after the knot has been tied.
Panja or comb - It is a short iron comb with a wooden handle. It is used to settle and fix the woven weft between the cotton warp lines. Since the comb is heavy, its weight helps to settle down the knots tightly.
Padla or Creel - It is a wooden tool used to wind yarn from the cotton hank.
Finishing scissors - It is used to level up the piles and give the carpet a smooth finish.
Brushes - These are large stiff hair brushes that are used to brush-off unwanted fibers from the finished carpet.





Dyeing -The process begins with the immersion of 'Atti' or hanks with yarn into boiling water for half an hour. This is then immersed in vats of hot dyes which are of three main types - direct colors, sulphur colors and acid colors. After dyeing, the yarn is washed in cold water and left to dry in the sun.

Winding - 'Winding' is a process of transferring yarn from the hanks to the bobbins. Locally known as 'Kandi Bharna', the process involves stretching the yarn around the 'Creel' and the 'Winders' draw threads from the stretched hank attached to the bobbin. This is then placed on the spindle.

Warping - The length of the warp generally ranges from 40 yards to 60 yards depending on its work-ability. 'Warp bobbins' are attached in rows to a vertical stand. Threads are drawn from these to the reed and then to the warp drum. Keeping the circumference of the drum as a measurement, the length of the warp is determined according to the number of times it is rotated. This process has to be done with utmost care to enable good weaving.

Drafting - Locally known as 'Sarai Karna', drafting is done to keep the warp threads parallel to one another and divide them into sheds while weaving. 

Denting - This is the process of drawing the warp-ends through the reed. Two people are required in this process. One picks up the thread in twos and the other draws them through the reed. It is called 'Taar Bharna'

Weaving- The weaving of the dhurries is carried out in three primary weaving actions of shedding, picking and beating. The act of shedding results in creating an opening in the warp threads while picking propels the shuttle. The beating motion, as the name suggests, beats up the weft thread by drawing the 'slay' forward. Expertise and efficiency aids the weaver in carrying about these three in a rhythmic manner.