For over 2000 years the manual craft of papermaking has been practiced all over the world utilizing a variety of techniques. Paper's evolution has been shaped by the structure and chemical composition of the fibers. Almost every aspect of modern papermaking technology has been foreshadowed by traditional practices. Such practices were passed down for many generations within families of papermakers. The main sources of cellulosic fiber evolved as the ancient craft migrated from its birthplace in China to Korea and Japan, the Islamic world, and then to Europe and America. Though most paper made today comes from automated, continuous production systems, handmade paper has enjoyed resurgence, both as a traditional craft and as an art form. In addition, traditional papermaking methods can provide insights to help in modern applications involving cellulosic fibers.

Raw Materials




Tools & Technology





Process of making hand-made paper (rose petals):  

Paper Making - The process began by reducing cotton waste to pulp. The pulp is diluted with water and put into a masonry. The lifting mold (mesh on a wooden frame) is then dipped into the trough, shaken evenly and lifted out with the pulp on it. The consistency of the pulp in the tank should be kept constant.

Rose Plucking - Roses are selected and plucked, Flower petals were added to the pulp, which is then transferred to large tanks. A rectangular tray of fine mesh is submerged into the water. Pulp from the tank is emptied it into the tray.

Pressing - After inverting the tray and the muslin, the sheet of pulp now on top is added to a pile. The pile was then pressed to drive out most of the water. Pressing reduces the bulkiness of the paper i.e. the sheets become more compact.

Separation - Small dirt particles are removed manually with a sharp instrument. The cleaned sheets are given a coating with starch to improve the physical properties of the paper and prevent feathering. This is called sizing and can be done manually with a brush or by the dipping method.

Natural Drying - After Separation, the resulting sheets were peeled off from the muslin. As between 50 and 65% of moisture remains in the sheets. The sheets are dried by hanging them in open areas of sunlight to remove the rest of the moisture.

Calendaring - Then Dried Paper is passed through a series of metal rolls at the end of a paper machine; when the paper is passed between these rolls it increases its smoothness and glossy surface.