The shawls in Kashmir are woven from fine wool or other animal fleece. It is colloquially known as ‘Jamawar’, when it was woven in yards. This was because the Maharajas and nobility by the yard or ‘Jam’ purchased it. It was then stitched into robes or gowns called ‘Jama’. Kani shawls, on the other hand, were called so when finely embroidered with a Kani or wooden needles.
Earliest use of the fabric was to make robes for royalty. The rarity and intricacy of designs, coupled with its functionality made it popular. The shawls were sought after for their warmth as well as kept as heirlooms. Sometimes passed on from one generation to the other.
Origin of Pashmina dates back to ancient civilization and has been traced back to the times of Mahabharata. Earlier in olden days pashmina shawls found favor with emperors, kings, princes, rulers and nobles. This precious fabric was known as ‘FIBER FOR KINGS’. It started long back; the mountain people of Nepal had to depend on the fabric they wove for warmth, for easy travel and for survival. In many high mountain areas and semi-tropical jungles, they continued to weave for their perfect protection and comfort wear. Today professional men embroider Kashmiri shawls. Lately, the American market has opened to Pashmina as Americans discovered its plush, soft texture. Fashion gurus now pronounce it as essential to the wardrobe as the ubiquitous little black dress.
‘The word ‘Shawl’ is taken from a Persian word ‘Shal’ for a length of fine woolen fabric used as a garment. Shawl weaving remained one of the most important economic activities of Kashmir till the late 19th century. It usually takes two weavers around 3-6 months to complete a shawl, depending on the intricacy of the design.
In response to the severe cold of altitudes over about 15,000 feet, a species of mountain goat produces an undercoat of extremely fine soft wool called Pashmina, which is popularly known as ‘Cashmere’ globally. Caravan traditionally brought down limited quantities of this wool from western Tibet and Kirghizia into Kashmir. Depending on its quality the wool was sold, or let out to the spinners and dyers, in small amounts painstakingly weighed and accounted for.
The finest is known to grow on the Himalayan Ibex’s underbelly. During the summers, they rub themselves against rocks and shrubs, leaving behind fine shorthaired fleece. This is collected and has an added value due to its scarcity. The fleece is called Asli Tus, renowned for it’s soft silkiness, lightweight, warmth. The famous ‘ring shawls’, which can pass through a small thumb ring.
Division of labour was carried to extremes, with scores of people participating directly in the production of one shawl. These include the broker dealing in wool, the women who separate the fleece, clean it, and spin it, and the men who dye it, make and dress the warp, thread the heddles, draw the shawl pattern, call colours as the pattern is coloured in, transcribe the coded guide to weaving (taalim), weave the shawl, tweeze out imperfections, and wash and stretch the woven shawl. In the process, the Naqqash or designer is held in high regard. They are paid more than the weavers are. In earlier times, the fame of Kashmir shawls had so spread through northern India, that it was much sought after by the Nawabs of Oudh, the Rajput princes and the elite of Hyderabad. They wore Jamas and Angarkhas of elaborate design. The fame of the shawls had spread as far as Russia, where the nobility used it as wall hangings. It is said that the empress Josephine of France owned around 400 shawls.
Myths & Legends:
The first mention of pashmina stems from the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata from 6 to 4 century BC. Pashmina – these precious fabrics were intended for the king and their donation is gaining the favor of emperors, queens, princes and nobles. Though the history of shawl weaving, with which the history of woolen textiles is closely associated, is rather obscure, references to shawls are first found in the Ramayana and the Atharvaveda as well. The shawl is also mentioned in ancient Buddhist literature among the recorded inventories of woolen garments.
The king of all wools originated in Kashmir hundreds of years ago. The art of Pashmina making in the valley of Kashmir is believed to be as old as 3000 years B.C. In the past, only rich and elite had the privilege of enjoying luxurious fabric. It adorned the court of Caesar and was the pride of French queen, Marie Antoinette. Impressed with the unparalleled looks of Kashmir shawl, Emperor Napoleon presented it to impress Josephine. After became empress, she reported variously as owning from 60 shawls to 400. Josephine’s patronages confirmed the fashion, making the pashmina shawl-the rectangular doshala all the rage in France and throughout Europe.
Mention of pashmina shawls in writing is found between 3rd century BC and the 11th century AD. Zain-ul-Abadin, the 15th century ruler of Kashmir, is known to be the founder of the pashmina wool industry. He introduced weavers from Central Asia. Cashmere Pashmina shawls have been manufactured in Nepal and Kashmir for hundreds of years.
Ladies of the 18th century court in France and St. Petersburg were enchanted by the regal feel and warmth of Cashmere Pashmina. Pashmina scarves, stoles, wraps, shawls and throws remain an essential part of a fashionable wardrobe, attesting to the durability and appeal of this classic accessory. The flourishing of the shawl industry is attributed to Sultan Zain-ul-Abadin (1418-1419 and 1420-1470). He brought in weavers from Turkistan for this purpose. In the early stages of its development and popularity, Mughal emperors like Babur, Akbar and Jahangir are known to have played a role.
The earliest references in literature seem to be during Akbar’s reign (ad 1556-1605). He introduced the Dhoshala style, where a pair of shawls was stitched back-to-back, such that the undersides were never visible.
Kashmir has been manufacturing shawls for centuries. In the second quarter of 19th century there were 40 thousand to 45 thousand weavers and one-lakh spinners in Kashmir valley on an average one-lakh pieces of pashmina shawls were manufactured annually. Of these 80 thousand were exported to Europe, Iran, Magnolia, Russia, Central Asia, Asalica, Turkey, Africa and Other parts of India.
Tradition says that the transparent veil worn but the Monalisa is in reality one of the those earlier pashmina fabrics that could be drawn through a lady’s ring as a test of fineness. According to Ain-i-Akbari, Mughal king, Akbar the great encourage in every possible way the manufacture of shawls in Kashmir, Akbar coined a new name for pashmina as Paremnarm meaning supremely soft. The custom of presenting shawls is also recorded in the rage of Shah Jahan. Kashmiri shawls were all the rage in Europe for much of the 19th century. The earlier pashmina shawls to be appreciated as fashion items in the west were brought around the middle of the 18th century in the personal baggage of British officials and merchants on their return from India. In France, a few genuine Pashmina shawls were seen in the 1780s. Most sources agree that, it was Nepolean’s military expedition to Egypt in 1798, when a number of his officers brought back shawls for their women folk.
In 1803, an Armenian trader, Khwaja Yusuf introduced ‘Amlikar’ or embroidered shawl method, as opposed to patterns incorporated during weaving. This proved to be cheaper and faster. By the time king Ranjit Singh annexed Kashmir in 1819, the rafugaars or darners of 20 years ago had become skilled embroiderers. William Moorcroft wrote a detailed account of the industry between 1820 and 1823. It indicated an advanced and organized system in division of labour. Depending on the intricacy of the shawl, there were even 12 or more specialists independently involved in the same shawl.
When Maharaja Gulab Singh handed over Kashmir to the British in 1846, conditions of the weavers further deteriorated from what they were. The weavers were the most oppressed and the king also at the receiving end of the various taxes levied them. The weavers thus fled in hundreds to Punjab and continued to weave there. These shawls were however inferior in quality. This was because the supply of Kashmiri raw materials was cut off and they had to make do with adulterated goat fleece.
The mid 19th century proved to be a great period for trade in shawls, for merchants and dealers. Many scholars believe that this period was also the time of artistic decline for these shawls. This was due to the foreign influence on the patterns, that trade brought in. Exports to Europe more than doubled between 1850 and 1860. In the following decade,jacquard looms were implemented in Lyons and Paisley, and the shawl manufacture could not compete with them. The Franco-Prussian war of 1970-71 caused the French market for shawl trade to decline.
With the decline of the Mughal Empire, and following the battle of Plassey (1757), the British East India Company became the major trade and political force in India, along with French, Dutch and Portuguese outposts. The Company held the monopoly for both import and export of goods from India, and increasingly taxed and controlled the manufacture and movement of goods within the country, particularly textiles.
By the late 18th century, both the empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon 1 of France from 1796-1809, and English royalty were setting the example of their taste for Kashmir shawls before ever-widening circles of the fashion-conscious. In Turkey, Russia, and Central Asia where they were also popular, purchasers of shawls were accustomed to stipulating the colours and designs, shapes and sizes, in their orders. Queen Victoria (reigned 1837-1901) received an annual tribute from the state of Kashmir, including specially woven shawls, square in shape, which she wore folded diagonally. The colorful shawls complemented white cotton dress fabrics, who were common at the time, and in the early 1800’s the price of a Kashmir shawl in Europe was about L70 – L100. Very quickly, supply could not keep up with European demand, and many measures were adopted in both Kashmir and Europe to shorten the estimated 18 to 36 months required for a fine tapestry-woven shawl, to cash in on this demand.
A short cut of sorts, applied to the tapestry shawl, was to assemble dozens, even hundreds, of separately woven pieces, each individually shaped by its place in the design. Thus many weavers could contribute simultaneously to one shawl, along with an equally skilled rafugaar to darn the fragments together with imperceptible stitches. Victor Jacque Mont, a French naturalist on a mission to India in 1831, reported that the strategy of piecing shawls together also facilitated the collection of taxes on every scrap of weaving at the earliest opportunity, and that weavers, out of fear of dismissal by their employer, were reluctant to leave large portions of work on the loom.
Efforts to obtain pashmina or establish shawl goat flocks in Europe were not a success. The wool became felted and the goats perished during the long tropical sea journey, or the survivors did not produce their soft undercoat in Europe’s milder climate. Until mid-twentieth century, Kashmir’s kings had the sole right to purchase all pashmina from Nepal, Tibet and other higher reaches of Himalayas. This resulted in establishment of flourishing cottage industry in Kashmir and has lead to the perfection of art of pashmina making.
Pashmina fiber is less than 15-19 microns in thickness making it very soft (whereas human hair is 75 microns thick) One goat produces 3 to 8 ounces of Pashmina per year. Pashmina comes from Himalayan region as finest Kashmiri wool, which is derived at the altitude of 12000 to 14000 ft. where temperature goes down up to-40 degree centigrade. The thermo conductivity of the wool is best in the world, as the goat survives at -40 degree Celsius temperatures (far below freezing zero temperatures) in cold climates The pashmina we see on the Web and in local stores are usually an 80/20, 70/30 or even a 50/50 blend of cashmere and silk respectively. This is said to produce a strong yet supple, lightweight, luxurious wrap for evening or daytime wear. Most vendors claim that very special Himalayan goats produce the wool in their pashmina. Cashmere refers to the fine wool from the undercoat of these Kashmir goats – pashmina is the creme de la creme of cashmere.
The earliest shawls had no particular motifs but they had striped in various colours. As time passed, the weavers derived inspiration from nature. Man floral motifs emerged. There is a strong Persian influence in the designs. There are few remnants of the mid 19th century European influence as well. Chand-dar or Moon shawl had a medallion in the center and quarters in the corner. The patterns almost covered the ground colour. Various butis and badam shapes are the popular motifs. These come in different shapes and sizes. Two badams were superimposed at times. Naturalistic forms of flora and fauna are also used. Zebaish – Twill weave simulated in black embroidery to outline the motifs and give emphasis to detail. This was sometimes skillfully executed in a way that the two different sides of the shawl looked different in pattern and colour. Patterns from architectural elements like Mihrab patterns were also used. It is used in a way to give the feeling of looking through a window.
A few other commonly used motifs are: Char badam, Seda badam (badam in vertical orientation), Panjdar (pattern like five fingers of flower) ShikargahCheet misri (Egyptian print), Kev Posh (root flower), Khrika AlzaGul-e-noor jehan (a flower liked by queen Nur Jehan), Gulabkan (roses), Yumberzal Posh (meadow wild flower), Hasan Kuli (name of a weaver), Khatrast (One-inch stripes), Marder (snake like forms), Gulkar (only flowers), Ragas Chinar (Chinar leaf motif), Taj (Taj Mahal).
Different types of shawls were woven.
1. Soodi– a simple, non-patterned hand woven fabric employing four-shaft twill weave
2. Kani– a highly decorative brocade textile, employing a double interlock slit tapestry twill, woven on the same loom as the one used for plain pashmina but with woven patterns made using small wooden sticks called tujies. Kanika Jamawar is a high-end variety of Royal Jamawar shawl. It is made with weaving sticks and the patterns are so finely done that front and back of the shawl is indistinguishable. Pashmina wool is used to make these shawls. Less than a dozen Kani Jamawar shawls are manufactured every year. The primary manufacturing center for these shawls is Kashmir while some ancient hand-mended (darning) shawls also coming from Najibabad, U.P.
In the 19th century, there was a minor revolution in the weaving of the traditional Kani shawls of Kashmir, the demand for which was ever increasing. Instead of being woven as one piece, now the shawl was woven in long strips on small looms. Due to the large areas of design to be woven, the pattern was broken down into fragmented parts, each woven separately, at times on separate looms, and then all these pieces were pieced together, rather like completing a jigsaw puzzle, and then they were stitched together by a Rafoogar.
The beauty of this shawl is that the stitches are almost invisible, and the completed shawl looks like one complete unit. In the beginning of the 19th century, there was yet another far reaching development in Kashmir, and that was the advent of the Amli or embroidered shawl. The Kani Shawl was further embellished, or in some cases, the plain ones beautifully decorated by a kind of parallel darning stitch, the thread being made to nip up the loops of the warp threads, but rarely permitted to go beyond the whole texture of the cloth, which made the embroidery look as if it was made on the loom itself! Kani shawl is a length of intricately woven material used as a wrapper around the body. The shawl is widely known as Jamawar as the kings and countries used to buy it by the yard, war and made “Jama” gown or robe out of it. It has a superfine texture, which baffles even the connoisseurs. By way of techniques, the Kashmir shawl can be categorized in two main types- the loom woven or Kani shawls and the needle embroidered or sozni shawls. Kani is the Kashmiri name given to a wooden spool that works most while weaving a shawl on the loom. Weaving is meticulously regulated by a coded pattern, known as the Talim drawn by the Naqash for guidance of the weaver.
3. Amlikor – plain pashmina embroidered upon with very fine Kashmir silk thread or cotton thread because it is hand spun, a genuine pashmina shawl is always one of a kind, identified easily by a certain irregularity of weave. Also, because the hand spun yarn varies in thickness the weaver uses his judgment while weaving it into fabric.
4. Saadi or seud – pashmina is hand woven pashmina fabric, beautiful in its simplicity. There are various styles of saadi pashmina:
5. Zooti – fabric made from mixing all the natural colors of pashmina, which gives it an uneven, shaded look.
6. Busso – “ woven from thick pashmina yarn, spun in villages by weavers who are still Apprentices.
7. Tilitouso – made from double ply yarn (dogun) in the warp and single ply yarn in the weft. It is made to resemble a shahtoosh shawl.
8. Alwon – made from naturally white yarn, with high warp count and tightly woven. Also called Tafta.
The weavers themselves have introduced various innovations in designs: such as the striped design, the dorukha (two faced), etc. But the basic method used remains the same. The Do-shala, as the name goes, are always sold in pairs – there being many varieties of them. In the Khali-matan the central field is quite plain and without any ornamentation. The Char-bagan is made up of four pieces in different colours neatly joined together; the central fluid of the shawl is embellished with a medallion of flowers. However, when the field is ornamented with flowers in the four corners we have the Kunj. Kani shawls are the most celebrated and popular among all the pashminas. Its production is also the most widespread and the extra weft weaving is done with a slight difference.
With a growing availability of cheap imitations of Pashmina shawls in the local markets, original Pashmina shawls’ future is at stake. Buying the famous Pashmina shawl of Kashmir has been one of the major charms for anyone visiting the scenic valley or the State. But with a growing availability of cheap imitations of Pashmina shawls in the local markets, original Pashmina shawls’ future is at stake. For centuries the Pashmina shawls have been woven on handlooms from wool handspun from the shaggy coat of a goat, which lives in the heights of the Himalayas in the Ladakh region of Jammu And Kashmir State.
Thousands of Kashmiris are associated with the ancient trade. Women mostly spin and men weave the delicate yarn into warm, soft scarves and shawls, which are often embroidered. Hundreds of Pashmina weavers, however, have felt compelled to take to other professions. For, cheap and machine-made shawls available around are affecting the original pieces’ demand and particularly the duplicate items available here.
The wool used to make the shawl, is cleaned and processed. It is then spun and dyed before weaving. The shawl is woven in elaborate patterns following the Talim. Embellishments such as intricate embroidery is done afterwards
Wool– The govt. has started sheep farms for breeding for this purpose. Pure Pashmina is rarely used in present times. It is mixed with Merino wool from Australia and called Top wool. Rice water solution –
Colours – Dyes, vegetable and acid dyes- derived from Indigo, saffron, cochineal, English baises, iron fillings, beetroot, pomegranate, and Mazarin root Reetha
Tools & Tech:
Treadle loom– made of deodar wood for its strength, fragrance and insect repellent properties. Kungi or reed–
Kani– carved from Pastul wood Charkha –
The wool used to make the shawl, is cleaned and processed. It is then spun and dyed before weaving. The shawl is woven in elaborate patterns following the Talim. Embellishments such as intricate embroidery are done afterwards.
The wool has two kinds of fibers- hard and soft. The wool is washed using Reetha. A solution of rice soaked in water is prepared to help remove the impurities. The water is drained off after 2 days. The residue is left to ferment in a sealed container. This is later ground into fine powder and sifted. This powder, when sprinkled onto the wool, draws out moisture and the hard hair. These are then separated using a comb.
The pashmina wool is collected every spring and is basically spun by hand. The yarn is spun on a spinning wheel locally known as ‘Charkha’. Hand spinning is an extremely painstaking task. It requires immense patience and dexterity.
The wool merchant for use as warp and weft separates the spun yarn. If at this stage the yarn has to be dyed for the warp, it is sent to the dyer or rangur. In earlier times vegetable dyes were used. Nowadays acid metal complex dyes are used. Pashmina dyers usually do not dye any other fibers. The pashmina yarn does not require any scouring. As alkalis destroy the fiber, it is only washed with a neutral soap before being immersed in dye baths of copper vats. The wool is then dried in sunlight and rinsed in cold water. The hanks of wool are converted into bobbins and are made ready for warping.
Owing to the fineness of the yarn, the warps are made for each shawl, one at a time. The Tani or warp is wound straight from a bobbin, which stands on the ground with the aid of a warping stick, which ends in a hook through which the thread passes. This passes through a ring attached to the ceiling, to keep the flow smooth. The warp winder goes around, winds the warp around the four pegs stuck into the ground. The finished warp is attached directly to the loom. A bamboo stick is inserted in the lease. The warps are then sized.
Wool is wound around the Kani from large bobbins, and form the different wefts required in the weaving.
It is a transformation of the design into a script or series of hieroglyphs done by a taalim writer, a task demanding time, patience and expertise. The taalim is read from right to left while the weaving is done from left to right. When the taalim is given to the master weaver, he begins chanting the taalim and the weavers follow his instructions. The Taalim consists of a set of symbols denoting various numbers of warp ends and a second set denoting the different colours the Kani has to go over.
The warp beam, healds and comb are suspended from the ceiling. The former is attached by a peg and cord to a fixed beam beneath it and this arrangement enables it to be turned as required to let off the warp. The cloth beam is also tightened manually with a wooden stick called taang, which ensures even tension at all times. The shafts are operated in the usual way with treadles. Pashmina fabric is hand woven gently and the weft is inserted through a shuttle in a ‘throw and catch’™ motion. Sometimes the comb or reed is beaten down several times before inserting the weft into the next pick of the cloth, in order to produce a tighter and more compact weave. The weaver can take 8-15 days to make a good quality plain pashmina shawl. The Kani shawl is woven in twill tapestry weave. The patterned portions of cloth are inserted using the Kanis. Therefore, the weft threads form the pattern – woven back and forth only where that particular colour is required. This technique might take around 18 months for a single shawl to be completed.
After the pashmina is woven, it is sent for washing. It is washed in soap nut solution or a non-ionic detergent. The Purzgar or finisher tweezes, clips and brushes it to get rid of it’s superfluous flaws. It is then washed with cold water, after which it is dried and calendared.
One of the most beautiful cities this country houses, Srinagar is known for its elegance and marvel, straight out of a fairy tale. Wrapped in the hem of snow-capped mountains, the city holds in itself the most serene lakes, impeccable flower gardens, unending apple and apricot orchards and a plethora of handmade crafts of a variety of materials, unique only to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
Jammu & Kashmir
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Up-to 600 BC : According to the Rajatarangini, the oldest ruler was Gonanda I, who appears to have ruled in the days just before the Mahabharata. It is emperor Ashok who is said to have founded the city of Srinagari, now Srinagar. The dialect of the North was known for its purity hence Brahmanas flocked to the North for the purposes of study. This is corroborated by the fact that Takshshila became a centre of learning and classical Sanskrit was first developed in Kashmir.
Alexander left the King of Abhisara to rule in Kashmir. According to the Mahavimsa, the Third Buddhist Council met at Pataliputra (Patna) and deputed a missionary by the name of Majjhantika to go to Kashmir and Gandhara (in modern day Afghanistan).
320 to 1000 AD: According to Kalhana (referred to above), nearly the whole of the Gupta age was ruled by the Gonanada dynasty i.e. for about 300 yrs. (unlikely though). It is also believed that the Kushanas and the Huns ruled over Kashmir during this period. After them a new dynasty known as Karkota or Naga was founded by Durlabha-vardhana. He had married the daughter of the last Gonanada king and became king in 527 AD.
Lalitaaditya Muktapada in 724 AD, the greatest king of that dynasty followed him. He defeated the Tibetans and the Turks. Lalitaditya's son Vajraditya who ruled from 762 AD is said to have sold many Kashmiris to the Arabs of Sindh and introduced many Islamic practices in Kashmir. The Arab governor of Sind raided Kashmir around 770 and took many slaves / prisoners. The next successor was Jayapida referred to above. He was a brave general like his dada Lalitaditya. Away from Kashmir, he won some battles and lost others and ruled Kashmir from 770 ad up to the closing years of the eighth century. Thereafter, a series of Kings ruled Kashmir. The Karkota dynasty came to an end in 855-6 AD.
1000 TO 1800 AD: Around 1014 AD, Mahmud Ghazni plundered the Valley for the first time. He carried him with a large number of prisoners and converted to Islam. He returned in 1015 AD and made a fruitless attempt to capture the hill fort of Lohkot, modern day Loharin. He failed to capture the fort in 1021 AD too.
In 1301 ad, Suhadeva asserted his supremacy over Kashmir but had to face Dulucha, commander in chief of the King of Kandahar who took a large number of Kashmiris as slaves. It is a very significant fact that the Himalayan countries of Kashmir, Nepal and Tibet came out of the mountain seclusion and enter the arena of Indian history and culture, almost simultaneously, from the seventh century onwards. Kashmir maintained this intimate association till the Muslims while Nepal; Tibet overran it until very recent times.
The next important king was Sikandar whose reign marks a turning point in the history of Kashmir from a religious/social perspective. Shahi Khan became the next king in 1420. He is the greatest king of Kashmir. The state became prosperous and he treated the Hindus well. He was well versed in Persian and Sanskrit, had the Mahabharata translated into Persian. He died in 1470 AD. From there on till 1530, there were a number of kings with treachery and instability being the name of the game.
A series of kings ruled Kashmir till 1540. It was then decided by Humayun's generals mainly Mirza Haidar to invade Kashmir. He conquered it in 1540. His imprisonment in spite of a promise of safe custody is a dark blot on the character of the chivalrous Akbar. His son Yaqub continued fighting Akbar till he was defeated.
1800 TO 1947 AD: Afghans ruled it till 1819. As long as they got their annual tribute of Rs 20 lakhs a year, the Afghan king did not interfere in the administration. Maharaja Ranjit Singh conferred Jammu as a jagir to the family of Gulab Singh. Among the three traitors in The First Sikh War was the Dogra Chief Gulab Singh. As a reward for siding with the Brits he was given the state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 on payment of fifty lakhs rupees in cash.
Jammu and Kashmir was the biggest among the 562 princely Indian States that comprised two-fifths of the India under colonial rule for well over a century. Unlike the remaining 60 per cent area constituting the British India Provinces, these States possessed sovereignty in various degrees depending on their individual treaties with His Majesty's government; broadly speaking, they had a system of personal government while being under the overall suzerainty of the British Crown. The British Parliament's Indian Independence Act, 1947 (which received Royal Assent on 18th July that year) created two independent Dominions of India and Pakistan made up of the erstwhile British India Provinces. The Act freed the princely States from the Crown's paramountcy but denied them dominion status while permitting them to accede to India or to Pakistan.
If the state acceded to Pakistan, the non-Muslims of Jammu and Ladakh as well as considerable sections of Muslims led by the National Conference Party would definitely have resented such action. On the other hand, accession to India would have provoked adverse reactions in Gilgit and certain regions contiguous to Pakistan. Further, the road communications were with Pakistan and rivers flowing into Pakistan were transporting forest resources that constituted a considerable portion of the State's revenue.
In the early hours of 27th October 1947 began an operation the like of which had never before occurred in the history of warfare. On 7th November the Indian troops won the battle of Shaltang, thereby removing all threats to Srinagar. Three days later, Baramulla was recaptured. The process of retreat by the enemy on all fronts began. With the Indian Army finding that the only way the raiders could be completely removed from Kashmir was by attacking their bases and sources of supply in Pakistan, India warned Pakistan on 22nd December 1947 that unless Pakistan denied her assistance and bases to the invaders, India would be compelled to take such action.
At that critical stage in J&K's history, 53 years ago, Lord Mountbatten urged our PM, Jawaharlal Nehru, about "the overwhelming need for caution and restraint"
he stressed "how embroilment in war with Pakistan would undermine the whole of Nehru's independent foreign policy and progressive social aspirations. And, on Mountbatten's advice, Nehru decided to lodge a complaint to the United Nations Security Council. That was done on 31st December 31, 1947.
Jammu & Kashmir is a mystifying land. It is a picturesque collage of various elements of nature that makes it an ideal tourist destination. The northern frontier of the state is fortified with the majestic mountains of the Himalaya Range. These ranges and their snow-capped peaks complete a picturesque landscape that includes crystal clear streams and lush green vegetation. Jammu and Kashmir is not a homogeneous land. It is marked by undulating topography and varied soil types that lead to the growth of diverse plants. These in turn, support numerous life forms to constitute an ecological pyramid.
In terms of climate, Jammu and Kashmir is unique. The vast distribution of topographical features is a cause of this fact. The controlling factor of the climate is the Himalayas. Except the dry plateaus of Ladakh, the state receives ample amounts of rainfall. Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate, much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime a January average of 2.5 Â°C (36.5 Â°F), and temperatures below freezing at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the only road that connects Srinagar with the rest of India may get blocked for a few days due to avalanches. Summers are warm with a July daytime average of 24.1 Â°C (75.4 Â°F). The average annual rainfall is around 710 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is 38.3 Â°C (100.9 Â°F) and the lowest is âˆ’20.0 Â°C (âˆ’4.0 Â°F)
Perennial streams of fresh water crisscross the land. The streams water the land and sustain the lives of the people that inhabit the land. Winter season sees extensive precipitation in terms of snowfall. In the winter, the snow resembles a vast sheet of white blanket covering the valleys.
Srinagar is a heavy cantonment area and it is the starting point to the Srinagar-Leh highway. Army movements and requirements have led to the city having impeccable roads and proper medical facilities and some very good hospitals, scattered across the city. Medical facilities are a heavy requirement in Srinagar because of the constant political and pseudo-social disruptions that the city and the state have to face together. Srinagar being the capital of Jammu and Kashmir has to be kept in order when it comes to the basic facilities because of it being the central point for the locals, the Indian army as well as prominent tourism. Electricity and water supplies are abundant and Srinagar has a large range of hotels of different tariffs and facilities to choose from. Markets are many and have all supplies for basic and luxurious living. Jammu and Kashmir mostly has manufacturing industries, small-scale industries, cottage industries etc. There are industries in almost all parts of Jammu and Kashmir but some areas have been marked as primarily and significantly industrial areas. Some of these important areas are:
Industrial Growth Centre in Samba
Integrated Infrastructure Development Project in Udhampur
Industrial Complex in Bari Brahmana
Industrial Estate in Zakura
Industrial Growth Centre in Ompora
The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has also laid some policies for the development of industries in the state. Educational institutes are abundant with medical, engineering colleges along with a number of specialized colleges.
Srinagar Airport (IATA code SXR) has regular domestic flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh and Delhi and occasional international flights. The International flights terminal was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with an Air India flight from Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia. Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Kashmir railway that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track also connects to Banihal across the Pir Panjal Mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of INR5, 500 crores. The train also runs during heavy snow.
In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of INR30cr was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the Gulmarg Gondola.
Architecture of Srinagar can be divided into at least three different time periods. Dating back in the history, before arrival of Parmars of Gujarat to Garhwal, and Srinagar's emergence as Capital in later time, the place was understandably a small hillside settlement scattered across the valley at an immediate sight. Excluding some Archaeological significance and recent findings, the place was much a junction and a stopover en-route Badrinath - Kedarnath. Excluding recent excavations and few heritage sites around Srinagar which reveal some breath-taking findings of settlements, civilisations and remains of prehistoric era or around 3,000 - 5,000 B.C. resembling culture, these depict an age old Architecture scattered randomly in some remains and submerged structures. This tells us various things including the very Culture and Architecture of the region. Findings at Ranihat & Thapli villages are a thriving reference and much needs to be undertaken to unearth, study and preserve this heritage. The Himalayan Archaeological & Ethnography Museum is taking keen interests in this mission.
The pre-medieval time when Srinagar was a small centre, the architecture was houses with conventional mountain specific design complying the low temperatures, snow-falls, heavy rains, etc. features which are high altitude typicality. However, yet placed at a moderate height of about 579 meters and settled across a moderate mountain fare of the valley, it gained the real architectural momentum when King Ajaypal established Srinagar as Garhwal capital in 1358. Previously the office was at Devalgarh, some miles away from Srinagar. The architecture was a conventional Himalayan Architecture blended with some extravagant attempts.
Year 1803 and 1804 are most unfortunate episodes in the History of Srinagar & Garhwal. The devastating earthquake destroyed the relics of capital Srinagar. It brought down and literally destroyed the 'living' of Srinagar. The period now is crucial phase, which makes a significant and more tangible architectural state of Srinagar. This composition is a well assessed, planned and better executed design of what is Srinagar of post the flood of 1894 till date. Never denying the recurrent floods and few more earthquakes, which took place during this period. Some officials made visits to few places and the present day Srinagar much resembling to Jaipur architecture as Jaipur's Architecture & Plans are reasonably followed to comply with Srinagar's exposition as:
a. A Big Valley Bazar
b. Garhwal Capital
c. Important Junction on Badrinath - Kedarnath route
However the volume and expansion of present day Srinagar is vast and wide comparing to other mountain towns. The old Architecture is visible and felt more in olden town area and the structures constructed within. Today, it is more a semi-urban structures yet rising in a random and unorganised manner across any available flat-patch of land. Typicality of high altitude and low temperature zones, snowfalls, foggy weather and unpredictable climate change, all have to play a vital role in designing a strong and rigid structure complying to the hillside rather than thinking and executing any pro-urban plans in this architecture.
Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.
The culture, language, and traditions of Srinagar reflect a life that of a typical any contemporary, regional Indian town. It has to exhibit much uniqueness with customs, traditions, climate and folklore of the territory, the landscape where it sits. Mostly, the Himalayan Hills are still a maiden mountain space, so different, so natural, simple and very much mystic. Yet a very cosmopolitan Indian culture of Srinagar places this Himalayan valley, the ancient Garhwali Capital differently.
The very Himalayan culture intermixed with Lower Northern & Upper Western India's cultures, presence of Nath Sect in olden times, being headquarter to some prominent socio-cultural movements in Uttarakhand, creations in form of paintings (later and now known as Garhwali Paintings) and poetry from famous Garhwali Languages spoken in Srinagar are mainly Garhwali, Hindi, Punjabi and English. Sufiana Music: Sufi music came to Kashmir from Iran in the 15th century. Over the years it has established itself as the classical music form of Kashmir and has incorporated a number of Indian Ragas in its body. There are only a few families in Kashmir who are practising this musical form in Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir has the distinction of having multifaceted, variegated and unique cultural blend, making it distinct from the rest of the country, not only from the different cultural forms and heritage, but from geographical, demographically, ethical, social entities, forming a distinct spectrum of diversity and diversions into Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh, all professing diverse religion, language and culture, but continuously intermingling, making it vibrant specimens of Indian Unity amidst diversity. Its different cultural forms like art and architecture, fair and festivals, rites and rituals, seer and sagas, language and mountains, embedded in ageless period of history, speak volumes of unity and diversity with unparalleled cultural cohesion and cultural service.
While the Kashmir has been the highest learning centre of Sanskrit and Persian where early Indo-Aryanise civilization has originated and flourished, it has also been embracing point of advent of Islam bringing its fold finest traditions of Persian civilization, tolerance, brotherhood and sacrifice.
The Dumhal is a famous dance in the Kashmir Valley, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another traditional folk dance. Kashmir has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts. Shikaras, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Valley.
Jammu and Kashmir is a state of different religions and beliefs. And accordingly, the customs followed and festivals celebrated are many. But the heartening thing about the all festivals here are that people of all faiths together with same enthusiasm celebrate them. Main festivals include - Eid-ul-Fitr, Baisakhi, Lohri and Hemis Festival.
As of 2011 census, Srinagar city's population was 1,192,792. Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 71%, whereas the national average is 74.04%. The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population. Males constituted 53.0% and females 47.0% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1000, and nationwide value of this ratio is 940. The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 95% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 4% of the population. The remaining 1% of the population is Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.
The Kashmiri people are a Dardic ethno-linguistic group living in or originating from the Kashmir Valley, located in the Indian administered part of the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. There are both Hindu and Muslim Kashmiris. Other ethnic groups living in the state include Gujjars, Bakarwals, Dogras, Punjabis and Gaddis.
The Constitution of India does not allow people from regions other than Jammu and Kashmir to purchase land in the state. As a consequence, houseboats became popular among those who were unable to purchase land in the Valley and has now become an integral part of the Kashmiri lifestyle. Kawa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilly winter climate of Kashmir. Most of the buildings in the Valley and Ladakh are made from softwood and are influenced by Indian, Tibetan, and Islamic architecture.
According to language research conducted by the International Institute of UCLA, the Kashmiri language is "a North-western Dardic language of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European language family." There is, however, no universally agreed genetic basis for the language. UCLA estimates the number of speakers as being around 4.4 million, with preponderance in the Kashmir Valley, whereas the 2001 census of India recorded 5,362,349 throughout India, and thus excluding speakers in the non-Indian Kashmiri areas. The people living in Azad Kashmir speak Pothohari dialect that is also known as Pahari language. Pothohari is also spoken in neighbouring regions as well. There are approximately 4.6 million people living within Pakistani administered Azad Kashmir, this does not include the population living in Gilgit-Baltistan which if included increases the number to 6.4 million people. Most of these people speak languages other than Kashmiri, and are not ethnic Kashmiris, as they do not trace their origins to the Kashmir valley.
The people of Kashmir are believed to be the descendants of the immigrants from India proper. As Buddhism spread here, people from far and wide came for research and study. People of Kashmir experience a culture that is an amalgamation of a number of other cultures they came in contact with. Roman, Greek and Persian civilizations have influenced the culture of Kashmiri people to quite an extent. Kashmiri population is a blend of people belonging to distinct races with different looks, dresses, food habits, customs, traditions, rituals, etc. Have a look at the people and main ethnic groups in Jammu and Kashmir.
Kashmiri Pundits: Kashmiri Pundits are amongst the original inhabitants of the valley. They used to dominate the region of Kashmir, at one point of time. However, acute terrorism in the Kashmir valley forced them to migrate to other places in the country. Today, their population has been reduced to minority in Kashmir.
Kashmiri Muslims: Approximately ninety per-cent of the population of Kashmir consists of Kashmiri Muslims. Muslims belonging to both the Shia sect and the Sunni sect reside in the valley. They are considered to be quite skilful in arts and crafts. Their other occupations include agriculture, sheep rearing, cattle rearing and other cottage industries.
Gujjars: Gujjars are considered to be the Rajasthani Rajputs, who converted to Muslim faith. They belong to the hilly area of Kashmir and are generally herdsmen by occupation. Tall and well built, Gujjars have notably Jewish features.
Kashmiri women love to dress up with a lot of ornaments. Almost every body part, be it the head, ears, neck, arms or ankles, is adorned with jewellery. A typical ornament of a married Kashmiri pundit woman is Dejharoo. It is a pair of gold pendants, which hangs on a silk thread or gold chain and passes through holes in the ears pieced at the top end of the lobes. The Muslim women are quite fond of wearing a bunch of earrings. The typical dress of a Kashmiris man is Pheran, a long loose gown hanging down below the knees. The men wear a skullcap, a close-fitting salwar (Muslims) or churidar pyjama (Pundits) and lace less shoes called gurgabi. In case of Kashmiri women, the Pheran is either knee-length (Muslim) or touching the feet (Hindu). The Pheran is tied at the waist with folded material called lhungi.
Indulgent houseboats, historic gardens, distinctive Kashmiri wooden mosques and a mild summer climate combine to make Srinagar one of India's top domestic tourist attractions. Except, that is, when inter-communal tensions paralyse the city with strikes and curfews. Srinagar's three main areas converge around Dal-gate, where the nose of Dal Lake passes through a lock gate. Northwest lies the Old City, fascinatingly chaotic in normal times but largely out-of-bounds during curfews. The busy commercial centre is southwest around Lal Chowk. The city's greatest draw card is mesmerizingly placid Dal Lake, which stretches in a south western channel towards the city centre, paralleled by the hotel-lined Boulevard from which a colourful array of houseboats form a particularly colourful scene. This area usually remains free of trouble even during the worst disturbances, as do the famous Mughal gardens, strung out over several kilometres further east around the lake.
Reaching Srinagar is quite easy as it is well connected via air, rail and road. Mini-buses and Auto- rickshaws form an integral part of the intra-city transport. The best time to come to Srinagar is between October and June. However, each season brings it's own beauty. Marvellous Spring, enjoyable summer and frosty winter, all have their characteristic beauty to offer.