There are some crafts which are made just for the purpose of decorating or identifying cattle. One such craft which originated with cattle rearing is the craft of metal bells, or ‘Ghantadi-, as known locally in Kutchh, Gujarat (India). The craft is believed to be over a thousand years old, originated in Sindh, (currently in Pakistan). They were tied around the cattle’s neck so the owner would know of their whereabouts. There are thirteen sizes of bells and they are customized for different animals. A goat would have a small bell with a high pitched sound, while a cow would have a larger one with a deeper note. In each size, upto five or six different notes can be made. They are made from scrap iron sheets The metal parts are neatly joined without any kind of welding.

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      Introduction:

      Usage:

      The original use of the metal bell was to identify cattle. From the distinctive sound of the bell tied around its neck, the herdsmen could tell which animal of his flock it is and where it has wandered off to. It is said that the deep sound of the bell calms troublesome animals along with alerting the herder of its whereabouts.
      In present times, these bells are also used in decoration. Entrance ways and interiors are adorned with the metal bells. They are also combined with metal frames to create wind-chimes and also used in festive decoration.


      Significance:

      A traditional belief is that the bells ward off evil spirits and witchcraft. Black is color of power among pastoral communities in Kutch and Saurashtra and black yarn is used to tie the bells around the neck of livestock. 
      There are thirteen different sizes and types of bells customized for different animals. The different sounds for these are achieved by the denting, which is done near the base of the bell. They are tuned to an instrument called ‘Ekal’. It takes a lot of expertise and very careful and sensitive use of sound as well as touch. The shape and size of the bell, along with the wooden tongue sourced from the local Khirad tree determines the sound it imparts.
      The women help in the stages which require less muscular strain like preparing the powders and the clay mixes whereas the men carry about the metal work. This craft is a sustainable method in which the primary raw material is metal scrap brought in from junkyards. The furnace is the only stage where non-sustainable energy is spent.


      Myths & Legends:


      History:

      The craft of metal bell making is believed to be over a thousand years old and to have originated in Sindh which is now in Pakistan. It was patronized by the nomadic pastoral tribes of the Sindh area. They used to migrate taking their cattle along and these bells were used to adorn the animals. Each animal had a bell of a distinctive sound tied around its neck. This served decorative purposes as well as helped locate the wandering animals. The makers of these bells are from the Lohar caste in Kutch and according to some of them; their families have been making bells for as far back as they can trace their ancestry.
      In India, the communities always had a strong tie with the animals. There are festivals especially for animals, such as Govardhan Puja, camel races and cattle fairs. The cattle also served as a bartering tool for these nomadic tribes, who slowly moved over the Banni region. Over the years, they have settled down around this region and lived a generally sustainable lifestyle. With the growing fame of their craft and the non-nomadic lifestyle, the uses of the metal bell have transcended from cattle alert to contemporary decorative purposes too


      Design:

      The metal bells are crafted in thirteen different sizes. These are customized for different animals. For example, a goat would have a small bell with a high pitched sound, while a cow would have a larger one with a deeper note. Sometimes even the bells of the same size can be made to sound different by changing the dent made near the rim of the bell. This helps in differentiating the cattle of different owners. In each size, up to five or six different notes can be made.
      The standard structure of the bell consists of the cylindrical body with a curved dome like covering. A flattened metal stick with a looped end is put in through the head, to which a wooden tongue is attached


      Challenges:

      The use of the metal bells on cattle has diminished due to the fact that the tribes have shed their nomadic lifestyle and settled down. They no more have the dire functional need of the bells but it has become more decorative in purpose. The craftsmen have ably moved on to other requirements but the constant need for revamping has proved to be a major challenge.


      Introduction Process:


      Raw Materials:

      Scrap metal – Iron and brass sheets are used in making the bells, and is sourced from junkyards.
      Copper and zinc shavings- These are used in powdered form to be used as an alloy in strengthening the frame of the bell.
      Wooden Tongs – Wooden Tongs are used to handle burning hot metal, and the wood for these tongs is sourced locally from the ‘Khirad’ tree’.
      Soft mud – A soft mud paste is created by mixing mud with water; it is used in the baking process.
      Cotton – This is mixed with the soft wet mud to create a good binding material.
      Coal pieces – This is used as fuel in the furnace known as ‘Bhatti’.
      Wood – Also used a fuel in the furnace known as ‘Bhatti’.
      Takamkhar – It is a powder that is used in melting the metals. It is mixed with the metal and heated.


      Waste:


      Tools & Tech:

      Hathodu – This is s a hammer used in beating the metal pieces to form different shapes. Various sizes and types of hammers are used in this craft.
      Kalvaaayee – This is an ‘L’ shaped metal rod and is use in curving the metal sheets.
      Cutter- This is a metal cutter and used in cutting out circles from meatl cheets.
      Prakaar – A metal compass used in drawing out perfect circles on the metal sheets to be cut later.
      Mori – This a heavy dumbbell shaped metal tool used to beat out the metal.
      Jhangdaa – It is a thin and long metal rod with a curved hook end. It is used for placing and removing bells rom the furnace.
      Pakkad – This is a metal plier used in handling, bending and cutting metal pieces.
      Pavvdi – This a big metal shovel used to add fuels to the furnace fires.
      Tawvdi – This is a metal tub and is filled with water. Bells are immersed in it.
      Panch Soochi – This is a pointed tool used in punching out holes in the metal sheets.
      Tankdaa – This is a nail with a split lower half and is used in joining two pieces of metal together.
      Bhatti – This is a furnace and used for melting metal.


      Rituals:


      process:

      The process of manufacturing Ghantadi is completely manual with an active participation by all members of the family. The parts of the metal bell are fastened using joinery and no welding is used. These sonorous bells are crafted out of scrap metal and come in various sizes and sounds.

      A piece of scrap metal is beaten and cut into a rectangular shape. This then bent into a cylinder. The ends which meet are fastened using joinery. No glue or welding is used.
      Another flat piece is taken and a circular section is cut off from it, drawn with the help of a compass. This is then placed on a small thick metal nail and beaten into a dome and placed atop the cylinder base. A looped metal rod with a flat end is inserted in through a slit on the dome.
      This whole piece is now coated with powdered copper with the help of mud paste. A paste of clay and cotton is made and the bell is wrapped in it. This is then heated in a furnace to fix the powdered copper on the surface of the bells. After heating, this powder melts over the surface, giving it the characteristic texture and holding the parts in a tighter grip.

      Once cooled and ready, a wooden piece is attached to the centre of the bell for that characteristic sound which is beautifully sonorous. Denting of the bell to get the perfect pitch is also done by hand, by repeated beating with a hammer. Trained hand ear co-ordination is a skill acquired by years of practice


      Cluster Name: Nirona-Kutch

      Introduction:

      'Nirona' gets its name from 'Nir', meaning water, and 'Ona', meaning deep. It is small a village in the Kutch, Gujarat which boasts of a rich heritage of traditional crafts.
      district Nirona-Kutch
      state Gujarat
      population
      langs Kutchi, Gujarati, Hindi, English
      best-time August-February
      stay-at Homestay
      reach Bhuj town is located 38 kms from here. Buses and Taxis are available from Bhuj.
      local Walking Distances. No transport required.
      food Snacks like Dabeli, Bhajia and Chai are available.

      History:

      According to popular belief, the water of the 'Sindh River' covered the entire stretch of the Rann of Kutch, the deepest portion being a part of the Nirona port. The village was named after this port. The present "Rann of Kutch"came to existence after a devastating earthquake which made the river bed rise up. The port of Nirona was a major trade link for the Pakistani traders who traded rice, tobacco and fabric (Ajrakh, zari etc) from Sindh.

      Geography:

      Nirona is a village in the 'Nakhatrana taluka' in the Kutch district of the state of Gujarat. The nearest cities are 'Bhuj', 'Anjar' and 'Gandhidham'. The village is around 38 kms from Bhuj and spans an area of 31751.38 hectares. The'Bhurud River' flows on the western side of 'Nirona' and to its south lies the 'Chitrapit' and 'Dounger' hills.  A pond named 'Barahsar' lies to its east and the northern side houses a graveyard. It has regular bus connectivity from Bhuj. The major conveyance within Nirona, are buses, jeeps and 'Chakdas' (three wheeler carts).

      Environment:



      Infrastructure:

      The village has a dam constructed over the 'Bhurud River' by the name of 'Rudranimatani'. The dam aids in irrigation and cultivation as well as water supply throughout the year for the villagers. Nirona has a small marketplace at the entrance marked by a memorial stone. This market hosts small items of daily use and has sweetmeat or snack shops. There is a school and a hospital for the basic needs. Due to the proximity with Bhuj and other cities, the necessary items and services are sourced from the surrounding cities while Nirona remains a quaint village.

      Architecture:

      The architecture of Nirona retains its rural flavour though it has evolved from the traditional construction to brick and concrete. Small narrow streets meander between the shops and houses. The shops and houses have brick walls covered by sloping roofs with clay tiles. The houses are spaced in a barren expanse with sparse vegetation. Asbestos sheets are used to roof the sheds and barns. Wooden windows have slowly given way to iron grills. The houses of the craftsmen serve as their workplaces too with workshops and furnaces forming the activity areas.

      Culture:

      Nirona houses both the Hindu and Muslim communities who live together in perfect harmony. They celebrate festivals like 'Janmashtami', Diwali, Muharram and Eid. A symbol of the peace co-habitation of the two communities is 'Phool' peer, who was a Sufi saint who was originally a Hindu but was a disciple of a Muslim master. The festival honouring him is celebrated in the month of 'Magh' for two days. Marriage is an important event in their lives as it signifies continuing tradition. The dowry system is still prevalent in some areas. Girls start fabricating embroidered items for their dowries at a very young age under the guidance of the older women in the house.

      People:

      Nirona' has a population of around seven thousand people. It houses different communities like the 'Ahirs', Muslims, 'Harijans' and 'Bhanusali Rajputs' who follow a patriarchal system. Agriculture and handicrafts are their main occupation.

      Famous For:

      'Nirona' is famous for its crafts of metal bells, lacquer ladles and Rogan art.

      Craftsmen

      List of craftsmen.

      Documentation by:

      Process Reference:

      Interview : Lohar Salim Siddiqui, Nirona (2.10.2010)
      Interview : Shri Lohar Husan Siddiqui, Nirona (2.10.2010)
      http://books.google.co.in
      http://rainafox.blogspot.in/2012/07/crafts-in-kutch-part-1-bells-bells.html

      Cluster Reference:

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