Srinagar, in the capital city of Jammu and Kashmir, is known for its crafts. Across the areas of Safa Kadal, Noor Bagh and Fateh Kadal are karkhanas (workshop) famous to crafts such as pashmina, copper carving, embroidery and walnut wood carving. Mostly situated in the by-lanes of downtown Srinagar, it is easy to identify a wood carving karkhana from a distance. The periodic hammering of timber and the strong smell of shaven wood makes it distinct.

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Wood is an extraordinary material renowned for its versatility and flexibility, rendering it suitable for a diverse range of products. Wood comes from the tough, fibrous material found under the bark of trees and shrubs. It’s mainly made of a type of tissue called secondary xylem, which is created as the tree grows with the help of a special layer called the cambium. This process makes wood strong and useful for things like building and making furniture. Comprising cells or wood elements that undergo various stages of development, wood has been utilized for structural and various purposes since ancient times. Its enduring relevance persists into modern times, where it continues to serve mankind with extensive technological expertise.

Juglans regia, commonly known as the Walnut tree, stands as a significant natural resource across temperate regions worldwide. However, there is a relative lack of knowledge regarding the within-tree variability of the anatomical characteristics of its wood. Understanding the intricacies of the wood anatomy within the Walnut tree is essential for comprehensive insights into its utilization and potential applications in various industries.The usage of walnut wood carving in Kashmir extends beyond mere functionality; it is deeply intertwined with the region’s cultural heritage and artistic traditions. The carved objects serve as a testament to the skill and creativity of Kashmiri artisans, making them highly valued both locally and internationally.

Walnut is the most common wood used for carving and Kashmir is the only place in India where this wood comes from. Wood carving is done on a variety of articles both decorative and utilitarian.

A diverse array of objects, spanning from furniture such as tables, chairs, writing desks, dining tables, and beds to functional items like wine bars, panels, screens, and doors, are crafted from wood. Additionally, artisans create articles of personal use, including cigar boxes, jewellery boxes, photo frames, wooden board games like chess and various other items tailored for contemporary needs. This versatile use of wood highlights its adaptability in producing both functional and decorative pieces for a wide range of applications.


Kashmiri craftsmen are celebrated for their exceptional craftsmanship, and the skills of Kashmiri woodworkers extend beyond small objects to intricate architectural elements. The fine geometrical designs seen in ceilings, ornate doors, ceiling panels, cornices, facades, and roof eaves exemplify their expertise. Additionally, the craftsmen are renowned for their intricate Pinjra (Lattice) work, showcasing a high level of artistry.

Walnut trees in the region are classified into four varieties: ‘Wantu’ or ‘Vont Dun’ (characterized by a fruit with a hard shell), ‘Dunu,’ and ‘Kakazi’ or ‘Burzol’ (known for having the best fruit with the lightest shell), which are cultivated. The ‘Khanak’ variety is found in the wild and can be harvested only once it matures to bear fruits. This rich diversity of walnut trees contributes to the exquisite woodwork crafted by Kashmiri artisans.

Walnut wood carving is an ornamental and delicate craft process that is unique to Kashmir due to the concentration of walnut trees in this region. Kashmir is now one of the few places in the world where walnut is still available at an altitude of 5500–7500 feet above sea level. The wood is hard and durable, its close grain and even texture facilitating fine and detailed work. It also presents visually interesting effects with mere plain polished surfaces.

In current times, due to a shortage of raw material, branches of the walnut tree are increasingly being utilized. The wood obtained from the root of the tree exhibits an almost black colour with a pronounced grain, contrasting with the lighter-coloured wood from the trunk. Branches, on the other hand, display the lightest colour with minimal noticeable grain. Interestingly, the darker portion of the wood, often derived from the root, is considered ideal for carving due to its strength. The value of walnut wood varies, with wood from the root being the most expensive, reflecting the distinct characteristics and preferences associated with each part of the tree.

Myths & Legends:


Kashmir has endured a history marked by various invasions and influences from different rulers and cultures, shaping its unique craft traditions. This rich textile is evident in the intricate Dragon Lasha patterns, furniture, and the iconic houseboats that characterise Kashmiri craftsmanship today. The imprint of diverse cultural influences is a testament to the resilience and adaptability of the craft.

In the 14th century, the valley of Kashmir witnessed the arrival of many saints who played a pivotal role in preaching and propagating Islam. This historical context further contributed to the cultural mosaic of Kashmir, leaving a permanent mark on its crafts, traditions, and way of life.

Once Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadan from Iran was visiting Kashmir. He was awestruck by its beauty but, at the same time, was disturbed by the abject poverty of its people. To pull them out of poverty and also give them a robust religious grounding, Shah Hamadan is said to have brought 700 artisans from Iran. They scattered across the region, spreading their knowledge, including the art of crafts, with walnut wood carving being a significant part of their teachings. This propagation of craft knowledge by the saints played a crucial role in shaping and enriching the artistic heritage of Kashmir, contributing to the development and refinement of the traditional walnut wood carving techniques that endure to this day.

The history of woodcraft in Kashmir spans over 10 centuries, with records of the old 12-storey wooden palace in Srinagar, unfortunately set on fire during the reign of King Harsha (1089-1101). Starting from 1028, woodcraft related to architectural intricacies began to flourish. The surviving wooden shrines, mosques, and mausoleums stand as a testament to the exceptional carving skills achieved by Kashmiri craftsmen. Notable examples include the mosques of Shah Hamdan of Naqshband Sahib and Khankahi Moulla, as well as the shrine of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Wali at Charar-i-Sharief in Srinagar, featuring elaborate woodwork and a unique wooden ceiling in the Khatamband design. Woodcraft in Kashmir is a craft born out of the local needs and inspired by the abundance of beautiful wood available in the valley, including walnut and deodar.

Walnut woodcarving is believed to have been introduced in Kashmir by Islamic Missionary Sheikh Hamza Makhdoom during the reign of Zainul Abdideen in the 15th century. The king’s patronage of the art aimed to enhance the valley’s economy, and the continually thriving market for these masterpieces brought wealth and employment to artisans until a few decades ago. The royal patronage even attracted master artisans from Samarqand, Bukhara, and Persia. However, in the present day, despite having around 3000 skilled artisans solely in the city of Srinagar, the craft is facing a challenge as it longs for patrons to sustain its rich heritage and provide continued support to the artisans.

The craft was initially restricted to the creation of elaborate palaces and houses. Written records tell of Zain-ul-Abadin`s great Razdani, palace, and its elaborate wood carvings. To this date, several fine examples of intricately carved buildings, shrines and mausoleums survive in Kashmir. And today with demand to cater more users it has moved from elaborate creations to a whole range of contemporary products.

Several products crafted in Kashmir, such as woodwork, are also produced in Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) and other regions in India, sharing common historical influences. Notably, the wood carving in Saharanpur has been significantly shaped by the migration of Persian and Kashmiri craft personnel and woodworkers during the post-Mughal period. While similarities exist, what sets apart walnut wood products from Kashmir is not only the material used but also the inherent texture and the characteristic style of the artisan carving it, which becomes an integral and distinctive part of the finished piece.


Woodcarving in Kashmir predominantly features popular motifs rooted in floral themes, often interconnected with other Kashmiri crafts like papier-mâché and shawl work. Alongside floral designs, semi-geometrical patterns, particularly in the form of jalli work, are employed in items like screens. The prevailing floral motifs include representations of chinar leaves, grapes, roses, irises, lotuses, and more. Another common motif involves the dual rendering of a tree—lush with foliage on one side and completely devoid on the other—symbolizing the seasonal transition from summer to winter.

Jungle scenes are also depicted, especially in deep three-dimensional relief works. These scenes showcase the diverse animal life of the region, featuring deer, jungle goats, snakes, bears, parrots, and various other creatures, adding a rich and vibrant tapestry to the woodcarving tradition in Kashmir.

Bold and simple motifs were distinctive representing the earlier medium of stone. The fascination for detail though seem to have developed in the later part of the 19th century under the European influence when the bold and effective wood carving of the past was replaced by highly intricate process of undercutting.

In the intricate process of woodcraft in Kashmir, the design often involves extensive hand carving, especially for essential structural elements like legs and curved components in furniture pieces. Accessories such as bowls and serving trays are entirely crafted by hand. While the structural worker assembles the basic piece, it requires substantial work from the carver and finishing personnel to achieve the final beautiful, aesthetic, and highly valued charm.

However, there is a notable pattern in the placement of carvings on products, at times becoming somewhat predictable and occasionally overly decorative, covering entire surfaces. The limited variation in products is currently driven by the growing demand for diversity from buyers, traders, and individual clients. Additionally, there is an emerging trend for wall panels depicting scenes such as hunting, forest landscapes, court scenes, or mythological narratives, reflecting the evolving preferences and demands in the market.

Woodcarving in Kashmir encompasses various types, including plain, engraved, raised, and undercut carving. The intricacy of undercut carving requires significant skill and often depicts elaborate motifs such as dragons or lotus flowers, with depths of two inches or more. Engraved carving is more popular, typically covering the entire surface and featuring motifs like the chinar leaf. Raised and undercut carvings are also utilized as thin panels along the rim of wood products, showcasing both the natural grain of the wood and the skill of the carver. These diverse carving techniques contribute to the rich tapestry of Kashmiri woodcraft.

Some of the famous motifs used in walnut wood carving are as follows: –

Gul Tarah (Flower Motif): This design incorporates different flowers in a stylized manner. The flowers can be shown individually, arranged as a bouquet, or depicted as part of a plant with branches. Some of the commonly featured flower motifs include the rose, gullal, susan, sumbul, yambirzal.yusman, lotus leaf and lotus, pambach, gul-i-aftab, gul-I-cheen, gul-i-dawood, khatai, sher dhana, ashq-I-pechan, and hei-ther. The use of these various floral elements adds beauty and intricacy to the overall design.

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Phulay Tarah (Blossom Motif): Blossoms of almond blossom, peach blossom, apple blossom, pear blossom, cherry blossom, saffron blossom is used mostly.

Kandh Posh Dhar (Flowers with Thorns): Rose with branches.

Gass-i- tarah(Grass): Reeds and water plants are used in this type.

Mavi Dahar (Fruit bearing Trees): Apple, pear and walnut fruits are used.

Dach Tarah (Grape Motif): Grapes, leaves, and vines are among the most popular motifs in both wood carving and papier-mâché. These designs often feature detailed carvings or intricate papier-mâché work that beautifully depict clusters of grapes, their accompanying leaves, and the winding vines. This motif is favoured for its aesthetic appeal and symbolism, often representing abundance, nature, and sometimes even cultural or religious significance. The craftsmanship involved in bringing out the texture and details of grapes, leaves, and vines adds a touch of elegance to the finished wood or papier-mâché product.

Bhoni Tarah (Chinar Motif): Most popular motif used in craft of Kashmir.

Janavar ti Jandhar Tarah (Animal and Animate Motif): This design depicts various birds, animals and aquatic animal species. These include bulbul, parrot, hoopoe, dove, pigeon, mina, sparrow, crow, golden oriole, duck, geese, fish, lion, deer, rabbit, horse, snake, goat etc. mainly animal and bird species found in Kashmir.

Jungle Tarah (Jungle Scenes): This design is an enhanced version of the janvar tarah motif, incorporating a detailed representation of the surrounding natural landscape. It goes beyond depicting just the animal or creature (as implied by “janvar tarah”) and includes elements such as mountains, pine trees, streams, and more. This broader scope adds depth to the design, creating a more immersive and scenic depiction that captures not only the creature but also its environment. The inclusion of the physical landscape elements enriches the overall visual storytelling and provides a more comprehensive and intricate portrayal of the natural world.

Dal Tarah (Dal Lake)

Shikar Gah (Hunt Scenes): Hunt scenes with a king mounted on elephant or horse along with his entourage.

Darbar Dhar (Court Scenes)

Jang Dar (War Scenes)

Shakli Dhar (Portraits): Famous personalities.

Harfi Dhar: Arabic, Persian or Kashmiri verses.

Chand Chotahi Dhar: This design features a central motif, represented by a “chand” (moon), placed on a flat surface. Additionally, there are four corner motifs, known as “chutahi.” The central design, often the moon in this case, serves as a focal point, while the corner motifs complement and balance the overall composition.

Pamposh Tarah (Lotus)


In present-day Kashmir, walnut wood carving craftsmen encounter multiple challenges, including the financial limitations of the craft and the difficulty of sustaining it. The diminishing interest and participation of local craftsmen, along with concerns about the future of the craft, add to the complexities.

With fewer students and active artisans, meeting the demand for wood-carved items has become challenging. As a response, traders in Kashmir collaborate with those in Saharanpur, known for the same craft, to bridge the gap between demand and supply. Products from Saharanpur, while contributing to the demand for Kashmiri souvenirs, also highlight the growing disparity between traditional craftsmanship and more rudimentary carving. Traders, acknowledging this gap, are attempting to distinguish and emphasize traditional wood carving, recognizing the irreplaceable skill set of artisans.

The demand for traditional Kashmiri furniture has gradually declined over the years, influenced by political unrest and a lack of innovation in the existing product line. Younger generations often opt not to continue their fathers’ legacy in craft due to the perceived monotony, repetitive nature, and sedentariness of the work. These individuals aspire for dynamic and competitive workspaces, pushing them towards formal education and professional degrees, such as an MBA. The shift in priorities reflects the changing landscape of traditional crafts and the challenges faced by the younger generation in embracing and sustaining these age-old practices.

Introduction Process:

The art of walnut wood carving in Kashmir is a time-honored craft that exemplifies the region’s rich cultural heritage and masterful craftsmanship. Nestled in the picturesque valleys of Kashmir, skilled artisans engage in a meticulous and intricate process to transform walnut wood into exquisite pieces of art. The process is not merely a craft; it is a cultural expression, a testament to the artisan’s skill, and a celebration of the timeless beauty inherent in every carefully carved piece of walnut wood.
A kharkhana, or workshop, where the entire process takes place is run by an ustad, or master, who is accompanied by karigars. Earlier, the karigars used to sing old Kashmiri compositions like sufia kalams, or other songs to keep themselves energised through the tedious process of carving. A karkhana is either a part of an ustad’s house or is at a walkable distance from it, a property rented/bought by the ustad.

Raw Materials:

Walnut Wood: The raw material used for the fine woodcarving of Kashmir is obtained from walnut tree locally known as ‘Doon Kul’ and is cut only once it matures to an age of 300 years.

Wood used for carving can be from the root or trunk of the tree. The wood derived from the root is almost black with the grain more pronounced than the wood from the trunk, which is lighter in colour. Branches have the lightest colour with no noticeable grain. It is actually the dark part of wood, which is best for carving as it is strong.

Walnut trees are of four varieties namely; ‘Wantu’ or ‘Vont Dun’ (fruit has hard shell), ‘Dunu’ and ‘Kakazi’ or ‘Burzol’ (best fruit with lightest shell), which are cultivated while the ‘Khanak’ is found in the wild.

The trunk of the tree is comparatively expensive because it is durable and has pronounced grains and therefore best suited for carving. It costs from 1200-3000 per cubic feet. The roots of the tree are most expensive because of its fine grains that are very appealing. However, it is hard to carve. So this part is only used when products is smaller in size and are expensive.

Natural Finishes and Stains: Artisans may use natural finishes and stains to enhance the colour and protect the carved walnut wood. These finishes could include beeswax, linseed oil for varnish, or polish, which contribute to the final appearance of the carved piece.

Adhesives: Depending on the complexity of the carving and the assembly of different components, artisans may use adhesives like wood glue to join pieces of walnut wood securely.

Tools & Tech:

The tools required for the carving process includes various types of and sizes of for cutting, planning, making joineries. Some of them are available in the market while some are manufactured by the naqaash himself

Tools used by carpenter
A tool for measuring 90 degrees, a chimta, and a toor (used as a hammer substitute) are essential in carpentry. Additionally, aari and filers with various types of randhas serve different purposes in woodworking.

Tools used by master craftsmen

Wood carvers often craft their unique tools, either by purchasing them directly from the market or by creating custom tools to suit their specific needs. These tools typically encompass various keels, different-sized tips for carving and cleaning (removing cut outs), a pothar for tool sharpening, and a thaipi for beating tools like chisels and keels.

Tools for polisher

The Zilan tool is employed to plane the wood surface without any carving. Pulat is a smoothing tool consisting of a smooth stone mounted on a handle thaap, used to refine the wood surface. The pointed stone on top allows reaching shallow parts of the carved surface. A brush is utilized for applying color and rubbing wax



After sourcing wood, it is cut into planks. The wooden planks so obtained are then numbered (dated) and piled one upon the other. The process is always carried out in shade. The gaps in between the different layers of the planks allow the passage of air, which helps in the seasoning process. Seasoning goes on for 1 to 4 yrs. The seasoned wood is then sent to the carpenter who makes the required object from it, which may be a box, a piece of furniture like table, chair, dresser, bed, book rack, dining table, panel, door or a bowl or lamp.

The process step by step as follows:

Chirin Process: Wood logs undergo cutting into planks at local band saws or wood mills.

Dry Wood: Subsequently, the planks are left to dry for a period of 6 months to 1 year. Carvers may vary the drying time, with some opting for shorter durations and others for longer. While extended drying ensures better wood quality for carving, a general rule is to retain 12% moisture in the planks to prevent cracking during carving.

The stages for wood carving are as follows:Wood Carving Process:

Lakhun: Initial stage where motifs are drawn on the wood using a pencil.

Dagun: Marking the motif with a chisel. Skipped by master craftsmen due to advanced skills.

Zameen Kadun: Deeper digging of the motif to achieve the desired depth for the entire carving.

Guzar: Giving deeper intricacies to the outline of the motif.

Kaanjiwaar: A crucial stage involving carving along the edges of the motif for a 3-dimensional impression.

Sumba: Using a keel (nail) to add texture to the motifs.

Dagi: Final details and intricate designs are added, marking the last step of carving.

After carving, the pieces are assembled by the chaan (if required) and sent to Roshangarh for polishing:

Zilan: A sharp tool working as a planar to smooth the surface without harming carved areas.

Raigmar: Cotton raigmar (no. 120 on plain surfaces, no. 80 on carved surfaces) used by Roshangarh to further smoothen the wood.

Walnut Colour: Special colour made by boiling walnut shells in water; applied with brushes to complement the wood colour.

Polish: Mixture of powdered colour and wax used as polish.

Khaka: Application of polish with a brush on carved surfaces.


Wood Shavings and Sawdust: The primary form of waste is the wood shavings and sawdust created when artisans carve and shape the walnut wood. This by product is generated as a result of using tools such as chisels, gouges, and files to shape and detail the wood.

Wood Offcuts: Offcuts are the small, irregular pieces of wood that are trimmed or removed during the carving process to achieve the desired shape and form. These offcuts can vary in size and shape based on the specific design being carved.

Unused or Scrap Wood: Some pieces of wood may become unsuitable for the intended design or may have defects, leading to the generation of scrap wood. This wood may not be suitable for further carving and is considered waste.

Dust and Debris: Fine dust and debris may accumulate on the carved surfaces and in the workshop during the carving process. This can include particles from the wood itself as well as any finishing materials used.

Cluster Name: Srinagar-Srinagar


One of the most beautiful cities this country houses, Srinagar is known for its elegance and marvel, straight out of a fairy tale. Wrapped in the hem of snow-capped mountains, the city holds in itself the most serene lakes, impeccable flower gardens, unending apple and apricot orchards and a plethora of handmade crafts of a variety of materials, unique only to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

District / State
Srinagar-Srinagar / Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmiri, Urdu, Hindi, English
Best time to visit
Stay at
Local hotels or stay with locals
How to reach
New Delhi-Srinagar, Amritsar-Srinagar, Chandigarh-Srinagar(by Air,Rail or Road)
Local travel
Bus, Taxi, Jeep, Auto-Rickshaw
Must eat
Kashmiri Food,Kehva


Up-to 600 BC : According to the Rajatarangini, the oldest ruler was Gonanda I, who appears to have ruled in the days just before the Mahabharata. It is emperor Ashok who is said to have founded the city of Srinagari, now Srinagar. The dialect of the North was known for its purity hence Brahmanas flocked to the North for the purposes of study. This is corroborated by the fact that Takshshila became a centre of learning and classical Sanskrit was first developed in Kashmir.
Alexander left the King of Abhisara to rule in Kashmir. According to the Mahavimsa, the Third Buddhist Council met at Pataliputra (Patna) and deputed a missionary by the name of Majjhantika to go to Kashmir and Gandhara (in modern day Afghanistan).

320 to 1000 AD: According to Kalhana (referred to above), nearly the whole of the Gupta age was ruled by the Gonanada dynasty i.e. for about 300 yrs. (unlikely though). It is also believed that the Kushanas and the Huns ruled over Kashmir during this period. After them a new dynasty known as Karkota or Naga was founded by Durlabha-vardhana. He had married the daughter of the last Gonanada king and became king in 527 AD.
Lalitaaditya Muktapada in 724 AD, the greatest king of that dynasty followed him. He defeated the Tibetans and the Turks. Lalitaditya's son Vajraditya who ruled from 762 AD is said to have sold many Kashmiris to the Arabs of Sindh and introduced many Islamic practices in Kashmir. The Arab governor of Sind raided Kashmir around 770 and took many slaves / prisoners. The next successor was Jayapida referred to above. He was a brave general like his dada Lalitaditya. Away from Kashmir, he won some battles and lost others and ruled Kashmir from 770 ad up to the closing years of the eighth century. Thereafter, a series of Kings ruled Kashmir. The Karkota dynasty came to an end in 855-6 AD.

1000 TO 1800 AD: Around 1014 AD, Mahmud Ghazni plundered the Valley for the first time. He carried him with a large number of prisoners and converted to Islam. He returned in 1015 AD and made a fruitless attempt to capture the hill fort of Lohkot, modern day Loharin. He failed to capture the fort in 1021 AD too.

In 1301 ad, Suhadeva asserted his supremacy over Kashmir but had to face Dulucha, commander in chief of the King of Kandahar who took a large number of Kashmiris as slaves.  It is a very significant fact that the Himalayan countries of Kashmir, Nepal and Tibet came out of the mountain seclusion and enter the arena of Indian history and culture, almost simultaneously, from the seventh century onwards. Kashmir maintained this intimate association till the Muslims while Nepal; Tibet overran it until very recent times.
The next important king was Sikandar whose reign marks a turning point in the history of Kashmir from a religious/social perspective. Shahi Khan became the next king in 1420. He is the greatest king of Kashmir. The state became prosperous and he treated the Hindus well. He was well versed in Persian and Sanskrit, had the Mahabharata translated into Persian. He died in 1470 AD. From there on till 1530, there were a number of kings with treachery and instability being the name of the game.
A series of kings ruled Kashmir till 1540. It was then decided by Humayun's generals mainly Mirza Haidar to invade Kashmir. He conquered it in 1540.  His imprisonment in spite of a promise of safe custody is a dark blot on the character of the chivalrous Akbar. His son Yaqub continued fighting Akbar till he was defeated.

1800 TO 1947 AD: Afghans ruled it till 1819. As long as they got their annual tribute of Rs 20 lakhs a year, the Afghan king did not interfere in the administration. Maharaja Ranjit Singh conferred Jammu as a jagir to the family of Gulab Singh. Among the three traitors in The First Sikh War was the Dogra Chief Gulab Singh. As a reward for siding with the Brits he was given the state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 on payment of fifty lakhs rupees in cash.
Jammu and Kashmir was the biggest among the 562 princely Indian States that comprised two-fifths of the India under colonial rule for well over a century. Unlike the remaining 60 per cent area constituting the British India Provinces, these States possessed sovereignty in various degrees depending on their individual treaties with His Majesty's government; broadly speaking, they had a system of personal government while being under the overall suzerainty of the British Crown. The British Parliament's Indian Independence Act, 1947 (which received Royal Assent on 18th July that year) created two independent Dominions of India and Pakistan made up of the erstwhile British India Provinces. The Act freed the princely States from the Crown's paramountcy but denied them dominion status while permitting them to accede to India or to Pakistan.

If the state acceded to Pakistan, the non-Muslims of Jammu and Ladakh as well as considerable sections of Muslims led by the National Conference Party would definitely have resented such action. On the other hand, accession to India would have provoked adverse reactions in Gilgit and certain regions contiguous to Pakistan. Further, the road communications were with Pakistan and rivers flowing into Pakistan were transporting forest resources that constituted a considerable portion of the State's revenue.
In the early hours of 27th October 1947 began an operation the like of which had never before occurred in the history of warfare.  On 7th November the Indian troops won the battle of Shaltang, thereby removing all threats to Srinagar. Three days later, Baramulla was recaptured. The process of retreat by the enemy on all fronts began. With the Indian Army finding that the only way the raiders could be completely removed from Kashmir was by attacking their bases and sources of supply in Pakistan, India warned Pakistan on 22nd December 1947 that unless Pakistan denied her assistance and bases to the invaders, India would be compelled to take such action.

At that critical stage in J&K's history, 53 years ago, Lord Mountbatten urged our PM, Jawaharlal Nehru, about

"the overwhelming need for caution and restraint"

he stressed "how embroilment in war with Pakistan would undermine the whole of Nehru's independent foreign policy and progressive social aspirations. And, on Mountbatten's advice, Nehru decided to lodge a complaint to the United Nations Security Council. That was done on 31st December 31, 1947.


Jammu & Kashmir is a mystifying land. It is a picturesque collage of various elements of nature that makes it an ideal tourist destination. The northern frontier of the state is fortified with the majestic mountains of the Himalaya Range. These ranges and their snow-capped peaks complete a picturesque landscape that includes crystal clear streams and lush green vegetation. Jammu and Kashmir is not a homogeneous land. It is marked by undulating topography and varied soil types that lead to the growth of diverse plants. These in turn, support numerous life forms to constitute an ecological pyramid.
In terms of climate, Jammu and Kashmir is unique. The vast distribution of topographical features is a cause of this fact. The controlling factor of the climate is the Himalayas. Except the dry plateaus of Ladakh, the state receives ample amounts of rainfall. Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate, much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime a January average of 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and temperatures below freezing at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the only road that connects Srinagar with the rest of India may get blocked for a few days due to avalanches. Summers are warm with a July daytime average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 710 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is 38.3 °C (100.9 °F) and the lowest is −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F)

Perennial streams of fresh water crisscross the land. The streams water the land and sustain the lives of the people that inhabit the land. Winter season sees extensive precipitation in terms of snowfall. In the winter, the snow resembles a vast sheet of white blanket covering the valleys.


The state of Jammu and Kashmir, possess a rich diversity of flora. An estimate puts the total number of plant species in the state at over 3000. These are unevenly distributed throughout the three regions of the state. For example, the dry frontiers of Ladakh have about 880 species, most of them able to withstand extreme climatic conditions. In Jammu, the number is over 500 species of plants. These estimations are inadequate since they include only certain groups of plants.

The flora of the state has a high degree of endemism. Some of the families of plants that are found here are found nowhere else. The plants that are found in Jammu and Kashmir are a majorly important part of the people that inhabit the state. The forests are the source of fodder, food, honey and other such commodities that lend a lot to the identity of the locals. Several plants with medicinal properties have been identified in the region. Locals as rudimentary medicines use many of these plants. The forests cover over 20% of the geographical area of Srinagar, constituting a vast reserve of natural wealth.
The diversity of avian species is remarkable. The 358 species of birds that have been recorded in the state can be catalogued into 179 genera and 16 orders. Many of these birds are migratory and navigate treacherous journeys to reach the promising land. The waters of the state provide habitat for 44 species of fish, categorized into 14 genera. Amphibians, such as frogs have been placed under 14 genera. The insect collection is infinite, with many of the species yet to be discovered. Mammals are represented by 75 species. These species themselves are subdivided into subspecies, represented by 54 genera further classified into 21 families. Among the mammals, it is the carnivores that occupy a chunk of the total mammals.
The abundance of faunal riches Jammu and Kashmir possesses is enviable. The state is the last refuge for many threatened animals and the state is doing the needful to prolong their survival. The protected areas of the region, its national parks and wildlife sanctuaries have been established. These provide a safe haven for these species for visitors to see and appreciate the rich natural heritage the state possess.

Hokersar, 14 km north of Srinagar, is a world-class wetland spread over 13.75 km2 including lakes and marshy area. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. It is the most accessible and well known of Kashmir's wetlands, which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.
Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.  Birds found in Hokersar 'Migratory ducks and geese, which include brahminy duck, tufted duck, gadwall, garganey, greylag goose, mallard, common merganser, northern pintail, common pochard, ferruginous pochard, red-crested pochard, ruddy shelduck, northern shoveller, common teal, and Eurasian wigeon.


Srinagar is a heavy cantonment area and it is the starting point to the Srinagar-Leh highway. Army movements and requirements have led to the city having impeccable roads and proper medical facilities and some very good hospitals, scattered across the city. Medical facilities are a heavy requirement in Srinagar because of the constant political and pseudo-social disruptions that the city and the state have to face together. Srinagar being the capital of Jammu and Kashmir has to be kept in order when it comes to the basic facilities because of it being the central point for the locals, the Indian army as well as prominent tourism. Electricity and water supplies are abundant and Srinagar has a large range of hotels of different tariffs and facilities to choose from. Markets are many and have all supplies for basic and luxurious living. Jammu and Kashmir mostly has manufacturing industries, small-scale industries, cottage industries etc. There are industries in almost all parts of Jammu and Kashmir but some areas have been marked as primarily and significantly industrial areas. Some of these important areas are:

  • Industrial Growth Centre in Samba
  • Integrated Infrastructure Development Project in Udhampur
  • Industrial Complex in Bari Brahmana
  • Industrial Estate in Zakura
  • Industrial Growth Centre in Ompora

The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has also laid some policies for the development of industries in the state. Educational institutes are abundant with medical, engineering colleges along with a number of specialized colleges.

Srinagar Airport (IATA code SXR) has regular domestic flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh and Delhi and occasional international flights. The International flights terminal was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with an Air India flight from Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia. Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Kashmir railway that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track also connects to Banihal across the Pir Panjal Mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of INR5, 500 crores. The train also runs during heavy snow.

In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of INR30cr was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the Gulmarg Gondola.


Architecture of Srinagar can be divided into at least three different time periods. Dating back in the history, before arrival of Parmars of Gujarat to Garhwal, and Srinagar's emergence as Capital in later time, the place was understandably a small hillside settlement scattered across the valley at an immediate sight. Excluding some Archaeological significance and recent findings, the place was much a junction and a stopover en-route Badrinath - Kedarnath.  Excluding recent excavations and few heritage sites around Srinagar which reveal some breath-taking findings of settlements, civilisations and remains of prehistoric era or around 3,000 - 5,000 B.C. resembling culture, these depict an age old Architecture scattered randomly in some remains and submerged structures. This tells us various things including the very Culture and Architecture of the region. Findings at Ranihat & Thapli villages are a thriving reference and much needs to be undertaken to unearth, study and preserve this heritage. The Himalayan Archaeological & Ethnography Museum is taking keen interests in this mission.

The pre-medieval time when Srinagar was a small centre, the architecture was houses with conventional mountain specific design complying the low temperatures, snow-falls, heavy rains, etc. features which are high altitude typicality. However, yet placed at a moderate height of about 579 meters and settled across a moderate mountain fare of the valley, it gained the real architectural momentum when King Ajaypal established Srinagar as Garhwal capital in 1358. Previously the office was at Devalgarh, some miles away from Srinagar. The architecture was a conventional Himalayan Architecture blended with some extravagant attempts.

Year 1803 and 1804 are most unfortunate episodes in the History of Srinagar & Garhwal. The devastating earthquake destroyed the relics of capital Srinagar. It brought down and literally destroyed the 'living' of Srinagar.  The period now is crucial phase, which makes a significant and more tangible architectural state of Srinagar. This composition is a well assessed, planned and better executed design of what is Srinagar of post the flood of 1894 till date. Never denying the recurrent floods and few more earthquakes, which took place during this period. Some officials made visits to few places and the present day Srinagar much resembling to Jaipur architecture as Jaipur's Architecture & Plans are reasonably followed to comply with Srinagar's exposition as:

a. A Big Valley Bazar
b. Garhwal Capital
c. Important Junction on Badrinath - Kedarnath route

However the volume and expansion of present day Srinagar is vast and wide comparing to other mountain towns. The old Architecture is visible and felt more in olden town area and the structures constructed within. Today, it is more a semi-urban structures yet rising in a random and unorganised manner across any available flat-patch of land. Typicality of high altitude and low temperature zones, snowfalls, foggy weather and unpredictable climate change, all have to play a vital role in designing a strong and rigid structure complying to the hillside rather than thinking and executing any pro-urban plans in this architecture.


Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.
The culture, language, and traditions of Srinagar reflect a life that of a typical any contemporary, regional Indian town. It has to exhibit much uniqueness with customs, traditions, climate and folklore of the territory, the landscape where it sits. Mostly, the Himalayan Hills are still a maiden mountain space, so different, so natural, simple and very much mystic. Yet a very cosmopolitan Indian culture of Srinagar places this Himalayan valley, the ancient Garhwali Capital differently.

The very Himalayan culture intermixed with Lower Northern & Upper Western India's cultures, presence of Nath Sect in olden times, being headquarter to some prominent socio-cultural movements in Uttarakhand, creations in form of paintings (later and now known as Garhwali Paintings) and poetry from famous Garhwali Languages spoken in Srinagar are mainly Garhwali, Hindi, Punjabi and English. 

Sufiana Music: Sufi music came to Kashmir from Iran in the 15th century. Over the years it has established itself as the classical music form of Kashmir and has incorporated a number of Indian Ragas in its body. There are only a few families in Kashmir who are practising this musical form in Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir has the distinction of having multifaceted, variegated and unique cultural blend, making it distinct from the rest of the country, not only from the different cultural forms and heritage, but from geographical, demographically, ethical, social entities, forming a distinct spectrum of diversity and diversions into Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh, all professing diverse religion, language and culture, but continuously intermingling, making it vibrant specimens of Indian Unity amidst diversity. Its different cultural forms like art and architecture, fair and festivals, rites and rituals, seer and sagas, language and mountains, embedded in ageless period of history, speak volumes of unity and diversity with unparalleled cultural cohesion and cultural service.
While the Kashmir has been the highest learning centre of Sanskrit and Persian where early Indo-Aryanise civilization has originated and flourished, it has also been embracing point of advent of Islam bringing its fold finest traditions of Persian civilization, tolerance, brotherhood and sacrifice.
The Dumhal is a famous dance in the Kashmir Valley, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another traditional folk dance. Kashmir has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts. Shikaras, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Valley.
Jammu and Kashmir is a state of different religions and beliefs. And accordingly, the customs followed and festivals celebrated are many. But the heartening thing about the all festivals here are that people of all faiths together with same enthusiasm celebrate them. Main festivals include - Eid-ul-Fitr, Baisakhi, Lohri and Hemis Festival.


As of 2011 census, Srinagar city's population was 1,192,792. Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 71%, whereas the national average is 74.04%. The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population. Males constituted 53.0% and females 47.0% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1000, and nationwide value of this ratio is 940. The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 95% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 4% of the population. The remaining 1% of the population is Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.
The Kashmiri people are a Dardic ethno-linguistic group living in or originating from the Kashmir Valley, located in the Indian administered part of the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. There are both Hindu and Muslim Kashmiris. Other ethnic groups living in the state include Gujjars, Bakarwals, Dogras, Punjabis and Gaddis.

The Constitution of India does not allow people from regions other than Jammu and Kashmir to purchase land in the state. As a consequence, houseboats became popular among those who were unable to purchase land in the Valley and has now become an integral part of the Kashmiri lifestyle. Kawa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilly winter climate of Kashmir. Most of the buildings in the Valley and Ladakh are made from softwood and are influenced by Indian, Tibetan, and Islamic architecture.

According to language research conducted by the International Institute of UCLA, the Kashmiri language is "a North-western Dardic language of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European language family." There is, however, no universally agreed genetic basis for the language. UCLA estimates the number of speakers as being around 4.4 million, with preponderance in the Kashmir Valley, whereas the 2001 census of India recorded 5,362,349 throughout India, and thus excluding speakers in the non-Indian Kashmiri areas. The people living in Azad Kashmir speak Pothohari dialect that is also known as Pahari language. Pothohari is also spoken in neighbouring regions as well. There are approximately 4.6 million people living within Pakistani administered Azad Kashmir, this does not include the population living in Gilgit-Baltistan which if included increases the number to 6.4 million people. Most of these people speak languages other than Kashmiri, and are not ethnic Kashmiris, as they do not trace their origins to the Kashmir valley.
The people of Kashmir are believed to be the descendants of the immigrants from India proper. As Buddhism spread here, people from far and wide came for research and study. People of Kashmir experience a culture that is an amalgamation of a number of other cultures they came in contact with. Roman, Greek and Persian civilizations have influenced the culture of Kashmiri people to quite an extent. Kashmiri population is a blend of people belonging to distinct races with different looks, dresses, food habits, customs, traditions, rituals, etc. Have a look at the people and main ethnic groups in Jammu and Kashmir.

Kashmiri Pundits: Kashmiri Pundits are amongst the original inhabitants of the valley. They used to dominate the region of Kashmir, at one point of time. However, acute terrorism in the Kashmir valley forced them to migrate to other places in the country. Today, their population has been reduced to minority in Kashmir.

Kashmiri Muslims: Approximately ninety per-cent of the population of Kashmir consists of Kashmiri Muslims. Muslims belonging to both the Shia sect and the Sunni sect reside in the valley. They are considered to be quite skilful in arts and crafts. Their other occupations include agriculture, sheep rearing, cattle rearing and other cottage industries.

Gujjars: Gujjars are considered to be the Rajasthani Rajputs, who converted to Muslim faith. They belong to the hilly area of Kashmir and are generally herdsmen by occupation. Tall and well built, Gujjars have notably Jewish features.

Kashmiri women love to dress up with a lot of ornaments. Almost every body part, be it the head, ears, neck, arms or ankles, is adorned with jewellery. A typical ornament of a married Kashmiri pundit woman is Dejharoo. It is a pair of gold pendants, which hangs on a silk thread or gold chain and passes through holes in the ears pieced at the top end of the lobes. The Muslim women are quite fond of wearing a bunch of earrings. The typical dress of a Kashmiris man is Pheran, a long loose gown hanging down below the knees. The men wear a skullcap, a close-fitting salwar (Muslims) or churidar pyjama (Pundits) and lace less shoes called gurgabi. In case of Kashmiri women, the Pheran is either knee-length (Muslim) or touching the feet (Hindu). The Pheran is tied at the waist with folded material called lhungi.

Famous For:

Indulgent houseboats, historic gardens, distinctive Kashmiri wooden mosques and a mild summer climate combine to make Srinagar one of India's top domestic tourist attractions. Except, that is, when inter-communal tensions paralyse the city with strikes and curfews. Srinagar's three main areas converge around Dal-gate, where the nose of Dal Lake passes through a lock gate. Northwest lies the Old City, fascinatingly chaotic in normal times but largely out-of-bounds during curfews. The busy commercial centre is southwest around Lal Chowk. The city's greatest draw card is mesmerizingly placid Dal Lake, which stretches in a south western channel towards the city centre, paralleled by the hotel-lined Boulevard from which a colourful array of houseboats form a particularly colourful scene. This area usually remains free of trouble even during the worst disturbances, as do the famous Mughal gardens, strung out over several kilometres further east around the lake.
Reaching Srinagar is quite easy as it is well connected via air, rail and road. Mini-buses and Auto- rickshaws form an integral part of the intra-city transport. The best time to come to Srinagar is between October and June. However, each season brings it's own beauty. Marvellous Spring, enjoyable summer and frosty winter, all have their characteristic beauty to offer.


List of craftsmen.

Documentation by:

Team Gaatha

Process Reference:

Cluster Reference: