A perfect mix of tradition and culture which is equally loved by the people of all ages, ‘Jutti’ is derived from an Urdu word for a shoe. This type of shoe has a closed upper and is slipped-on. It is most commonly associated with Punjab and mostly worn in North India. Punjabi juttis were originally made out of leather and their uniqueness comes from the embellishments and embroidery. It is symbolic to authentic and ethnic beauty passed on through generations and is an important part of the traditional Punjabi culture. Even in today’s modern world juttis are considered a crucial ethnic apparel and they have carved their own special place. As they can be worn every day, to any occasion and are still considered an important part of the traditional ceremonies like weddings.

Rate us and Write a Review

Your Rating for this listing


Your review is recommended to be at least 140 characters long

Additional Details

    Show all



      Worn by both men and women, and the form and style of a Punjabi jutti for men and women are different. Gabroos (Punjabi men) are drawn to the Khussa jutti due to the upturned curl at the toe, which resembles the typically Punjabi and masculine kundi mooch (curled mustache). Mutiyaars, (Punjabi women), prefer Kasoori jutti which has dainty, feminine designs and represent elegance.

      The juttis worn on special occasions have heavier embroidery work, mirrors, sequins and also sometimes ghunghroos.

      Traditionally used with Indian attires, these handcrafted jutties are these days customized to be worn with anything ranging from ethnic Indian outfits to skirts, cocktail dresses, sarees and shorts.

      These days we have juttis for every occasion and one can create various looks using them. They are pastel juttis with floral print on them, geometric print juttis and even juttis that have different types of textiles and embroideries on them like ikat, bandhani and phulkari.


      Juttis are an essential part of Punjabi culture. The jutti is the traditional footwear of north India and a source of pride and establishes a collective identity. It also represents their ethnicity and has become an integral part of their attire. There are many styles of juttis that appeal to different groups of people.

      Originally made completely of local leather, it developed different styles based on variations in climate, materials and usage of different regions. In the north Indian state of Punjab, this traditional footwear continues to be popular, with Patiala being an important production centre and market for the jutti.

      A traditional jutti is gold and heavily ornamented with various beads, jewels, and embroidery. Those with especially complex patterns were made in regions of Punjab such as Patiala, Ludhiana, Mukstar, Faridkot, and Malout to name a few. Each region’s designs and specialty varied slightly, but Patiala’s tilla juttis stand out due to its royal lineage. These juttis are also known as shahi juttis because they were worn by the Kings of Delhi during the Khilji and Lodhi reigns. Due to this, they are also considered to be artworks and hold a high place in Punjabi culture. It reflects the rich craftsmanship and cultural significance of traditional Indian footwear.


      Myths & Legends:

      It is said that early versions of royal footwear were elaborately embroidered using real gold and silver wires. The artisans who made these were originally from the neighbouring state of Rajasthan. The royal family are believed to have settled them in Patiala to make customized footwear.

      One of the stories related to this is of Maharaja Bhupinder Singh. He was one of the most popular rulers of Punjab and was known for his extravagance. He married the sister of Ganga Raj Singh of Rajasthan. During his visit when he saw the beautiful craftsmanship of the jutti makers or the mochis of Rajasthan, he called them over to Punjab. This is how the craft of jutti making came to being and flourished in Punjab.


      The origin of the curved toe goes back to the 12th century, when the length was considered proportional to the richeness of the person wearing it. It was also called Salim Shahis because being made popular by Salim Shah in the early 16th century.

      Since the 17th century onwards, through the reign of Emperor Jahangir, mojiris with inverted toes were acquainted. The jutti is a type of slip-on shoe which originated in North India almost 500 years ago.

      Before the advent of Mughals in India, leather and natural fibers were used in making footwear for common people while wooden footwear was popular named as kharaon or paduka among ascetics. Jutti or jutee is an Urdu word for a shoe with a closed upper or ‘uparla’ attached to a sole, was first introduced by the Mughals and was extremely popular amongst the royalty.

      The seat of one of the principal former princely states of north India, Patiala, in Punjab, is still considered a great cultural centre. The erstwhile royal family were great patrons of the arts, and the city came to be known for its educational institutions, music and architecture. Various local crafts also flourished. Among them was the traditional craft of leather shoe making. The jutti, a closed leather shoe with regional variations across north India, is still popular all over Punjab. The artisans who made these were originally from the neighbouring state of Rajasthan. The royal family are believed to have settled them in Patiala to make customised footwear. Juttis are the typical footwear from Pakistan and India. They are made of leather, fabric and coloured embroideries. “Jooti” is actually a generic term of many different types of slip on shoes characterized by rising high to the Achilles tendon in the back and covering the toes with a M-shaped embroideried upper.

      Juttis, as we know them now were patronized and popularized by kings and queens who were a part of India’s richest era. The shoes originated from Rajasthan’s hub. The style at the time was more detailed and complex in terms of embellishments, textures, and design. The juttis were bedazzled with pearls and gemstones. The first ever jutti was made in the Kasur region, which is now in Pakistan. It was during the Mughal era, since at that time everyone donned the footwear made out of leather and the royalty wanted something different and more extravagant. So these juttis were adorned with heavy gold embroidery, precious gems and was made using expensive leather.

      The style of jutti favoured by the charismatic royal family was the tilla jutti, decorated with elaborate gold or silver embroidery. This has become the iconic model of the so-called Patiala jutti. 

      A kind of footwear called ‘Upanah’ was first mentioned in the Yajurveda Samhita, Atharva Veda. Brahmans and Vratyas used them only during rituals. Antelope or bear-skin was used to make them.

      Along with wood, palm leaves and kamala, shoes were also made from the skins of animals like tiger, leopard, deer and otter.

      Ancient Period (Before 600 BCE):

      Early footwear likely consisted of simple sandals made from plant fibers or leather.

      Different regions had varying styles of footwear, influenced by climate and terrain.

      Maurya and Gupta Empires (322 BCE – 550 CE):

      More sophisticated footwear emerged, with the use of leather and more intricate designs.

      Sandals and shoes became common among different classes of society.

      Medieval Period (600 CE – 1200 CE):

      The Islamic influence brought new styles of footwear, including pointed shoes, slippers, and boots.

      Craftsmanship in shoemaking improved, and footwear became more ornate, often reflecting the wearer’s social status.

      Mughal Era (1526-1857):

      The Mughals introduced more intricate designs, with zari/zardosi embroidered and bejeweled footwear.

      Jootis, a type of traditional Indian shoe, gained popularity during this period.

      Colonial Period (1600s – 1947):

      The British colonial influence led to the introduction of Western-style footwear.

      Traditional Indian footwear continued to coexist with imported styles.

      Post-Independence Period (1947 Onward):

      The footwear industry in India witnessed modernization and increased production.

      Traditional handmade shoes coexisted with factory-produced footwear.

      Before the partition, even though the chamars, people who processed raw leather were found all across the nation, the mochis who made these juttis, were mainly settled in Rajasthan. So the royalty of other regions of the nation, who used to pay the mochis and call them in their region to make leather goods for them, now called them to make the embellished juttis. Since the hand crafted juttis were really sort after during that time, the mochis who used to travel were paid heavily for them. Later they settled in these regions which are mainly the Punjab, Haryana, Pakistan and Rajasthan of today. Though during the partition these people got scattered and settled in different regions and thus today the craft of jutti making can be found in various places. Despite of that the earlier regions still remain the main center for it. Over time, they became popular in Punjab, where the artisans experimented with various styles and refined them to become what they are today.


      Jutti making, for the most part, takes place in home workshops. The craftsman’s workspace is an extension of his living quarters. And like in many such crafts, the entire family was involved with the process. Roles of men and women were clearly defined; with the men being responsible for shoe making, and the women for its decoration.

      Even in areas where jutti making is now done in workshops, women take the juttis home to work on decoration. Often, a group of women gathers together, chatting and working in an informal relaxed environment. All the womenfolk in the house participate in the activity. This brings in supplementary income that helps support the family.  This is not just the convenience of a common workspace, it is rooted in the very nature of most women’s craft: a shared and interactive social activity. Women gather to embroider and stitch in a common courtyard after finishing their household chores.

      Desi Punjabi jutti has a flat sole and there is no difference between the left and right foot. The M-shaped front of the shoe, known as the Panna, is the part that is thoughtfully and delicately embellished and embroidered. Often, the designs on the Panna grow and expand to the side, or sometimes back of the shoe. Some juttis have a closed, round-shaped tip and look like ballerina shoes.

      The colours and designs on the juttis are influenced by Mughal architecture and the natural world of Rajasthan. The tessellations on buildings were recreated as patterns; motifs such as birds, leaves, and flowers are some of the most common designs. Often, blue colored threads inspired by the sky were used as a base for the embroidery. Since the shapes are simple, it also allows for ornate embellished designs called Nagras within. Nagras can be made sparkly with gems and beads or they can be understated and elegant with intricate thread work. This is usually worn by women, while the men sport more basic and minimal designs.

      Different types of juttis are made for various occasions. They can be sequined, embroidered, or even hand painted. Some of the styles are:

      • Tilla Jutti: This type of jutti comes with a special type of golden thread work called Zari work. ‘Tille ki jutti’, Patiala’s signature jutti design of intricate golden thread embroidery.
      • Salemshahi Jutti: This type of jutti is characterized with a pointed, and sometimes curled tip with a spade shaped sole. This style is named after the Famous Mughal prince Saleem (Jahangir).
      • Khussa Jutti: This type of jutti is meant for men, since it has a curled tip on front which represents manhood by having a resemblance with kundi mooch of a gabroo. The tip of this jutti is made using a single piece of leather or rexin carefully curled up. They are also known as ‘Sardari Jutti’.
      • Lakhi Jutti: The word Lakhi is derived from the paunjabi word ‘Lakh’ which means the slim waist of a woman, as this jutti has a narrow midsection which represents the same. Here, the upper i.e. the front and the back of the jutti are made using a single piece of leather.
      • Kasuri Jutti: Kasuri juttis features a special toe indent design and have very intricate work done on them. It was directly imported from Kasur district of Pakistan in the past times, but are now made in Punjab too. These are one of the oldest kinds of juttis made and are the most sought after design of the juttis.
      • Jalsa Jutti: It is a type of simple but attractive looking jutti for men that can be worn casually, in weddings, religious occasions and even in Parties and functions.
      • Sapaat Jutti: The word sapaat means flat and these juttis have an open back and look flat. They are also kind of like mules. The flat back makes it easy to slide the foot in it.
      • Salma Sitara: This is mainly popular in the Muslim community since it is a kind of decoration done on the jutti. This is done using a zari thread and intricate design is done using it. It gets its name from the star shaped metal pieces stuck in between the embroidery, as Sitara means a star.
      • Phulkari Juttis: These are adorned using the famous Phulkari embroidery of Punjab. They have motifs done using this embroidery and are mainly done on the fabric or rexin and are found on the Panna of the jutti.
      • Cut-work Jutti: As the name suggests, these juttis are adorned with different patterns, motifs and designs cut on the base of the jutti and the spaces in between them are filled using embroidery done using a variety of colours and stitches.
      • Makki or Chajje wali Jutti: Here the upper or the front of the foot has its shape like that of a m or a w.
      • Dabka work Juttis: Thin metallic coiled wires are used to do the embroidery on these juttis. Intricate designs are made by sewing them on the juttis and they can be found in various colours.

      While these are some of the classic types of juttis, many contemporary designs now exist. They have taken inspiration from other arts, the western-style and also the latest trends. Some of the newer designs are made from denim, are printed, have mirror work, pom-poms, and are even made in the style of ghungroos.


      Juttis being one of the most popular footwear in India has naturally led to it branching out into various styles, types, colours, and designs. Traditional juttis incorporated with a modern twist appeal to women across the world. People from the US, Canada, UK, Europe, Pakistan, and the Middle East have been captivated by it for many years. Some of the shoe brands there have collaborated on projects to create their own versions of juttis. This has led to different production processes for the juttis in India as well because apart from the traditional embroidery, bead work, and embellishments, printed images and motifs have become increasingly popular. These images make references to pop culture, cartoons, and vintage aesthetics. The embellishments have also expanded in terms of colorful threads, shells, and cowrie being weaved into the jutti.

      Designs that started with rich pearls and gold and silver embroidery for kings has been replaced with silk threads, beads, ghungroos, and other such decorations for the common man. It is accessible, comfortable, versatile, and draws attention. However, due to modernization, the glitz of traditional Punjabi jutti is diminishing.

      In the past 5-6 years, machines in factories are taking jobs away from craftsmen, who are now looking for other means of employment. The production of juttis does not require any machines, and the craftsmen will be able to practice their trade if a spotlight is shone on them.

      The demand for juttis has decreased since people prefer modern footwear over the traditional juttis.

      The artisans are facing difficulty in sourcing of raw materials. Also the cost of raw materials available in the market is very high. Some of the raw material provided is of poor quality and thus results in a poor quality product.

      There is also a lack of skilled labour in this sector. Since most of the younger generation is not interested in it and only older generation people are working in it. This will also make it difficult to continue the legacy of making these traditional juttis.

      A major section of artisans involved in this craft have been making them the authentic and traditional i.e., hand stitching. Though with changing technology these days it becomes important for them to learn new technology and also about the latest designs and patterns. Still most of them produce the same old type of jutti, which reduces the interest of the consumers. Though some of them still have an assured market and are also giving the option of customising the juttis to meet the needs, preferences and demands of the consumer.

      Even though the artisans work long hours and create beautiful juttis, they do not receive the money they deserve for it. This worsens the financial conditions of the workers.

      There is a need to create awareness among the Indian as well as the International market about these juttis. So that it reaches to the people, expanding its market.

      Patiala, which was considered the center for jutti making now houses about 10 artisans who make leather-stitched juttis.

      Apart from the impact on the environment, another effect of modernization is the changes in the production process of the jutti, leather shortage, lack of subsidy and VAT on the products, and fewer profit margins due to lower demands. Jutti making is a dying craft that has been experiencing a decline in its popularity owing to reduced and inefficient publicity.

      Introduction Process:

      The process of making these juttis is highly laborious and gruelling. Since even though modernised machines can be used in this craft, still some parts of it need to be handmade. This also makes it special and also at times bespoke. It is a very traditional form of craft and is passed down through generations. The artisan can take over a month to hand craft these juttis and sometimes even more in case of the raw leather juttis, since it includes the tanning of the leather. Beautifully ornamented juttis adorned with jewels, embroidery, gems and tassels are famous and loved worldwide.

      Raw Materials:

      The craft of making juttis, traditional Indian footwear, involves a variety of raw materials carefully selected for their specific roles.

      • Chamda: Leather
      • Rexin: Faux leather
      • Canvas
      • Hardboard
      • Sheet sole rubber: To make the sole of the juttis
      • Leather board
      • Foam sheet: Used to create the astar or the interning of the jutti
      • Polyester or cotton thread: Used to attach the piping to the upper piece of the jutti, using the sewing machine
      • Rubber adhesive PU (Poly unloroprene): Used for binding
      • Leather dyes
      • Taiwanese sheet: A type of artificial leather
      • Embellishments: Zari, mirrors,
      • Metallic thread
      • Paint
      • Lai: A paste made by mixing flour, water and a chemical named ‘neela thotha’, it is used as an adhesive.
      • Latex: Another kind of adhesive made of rubber. This mainly comes from Kerala since rubber is produced over there in abundance.

      Tools & Tech:

      The craft of making juttis involves a range of specialized tools to ensure precision and artistry.

      • Ramba: A big cutter used to cut the leather
      • Rambi: A small cutter used to cut leather
      • Scissors: Of 12”-18”, to cut the leather.
      • Khurpi or Khasani: To scrape the leather
      • Katani: As a bodkin awe for embroidery threads
      • Sewing machine: Used to embroider the upper part of the jutti
      • Wooden stick: Used to keep the embroidery in its place
      • Aari: Used to make holes
      • Kalboot: Top block used to stretch or shape the top of the juttis
      • Pauches: In step block used to stretch or shape the instep of the juttis
      • Aedi: Heel block, used to stretch or shape the heel of the juttis
      • Singni: Used to polish the juttis
      • Wooden Scraper: Used to smoothen out the juttis
      • Fali: Wooden board on which the leather is cut
      • Summa: An iron hammer to beat the leather
      • Morga: A wooden hammer to beat the leather
      • Silli or stone slab: A platform for working
      • Needles: To sew
      • Stencils: Different types of these are used to create punched designs


      Religion plays an important role in the making of jutti. Since the traditional jutti is made out of pure leather, the Hindus avoid using the leather obtained from cow, as it is considered a holy animal in their religion. Similarly, the Muslims avoid the use of the leather obtained from goat in their juttis.


      Jutti making is a complicated process that involves people from different Punjabi communities. The Chamars process hides for usage, Rangaars paint it, and Mochis stitch the individual pieces together and do the embroidery. The artisan making the jutti are also known as ‘Mochi’.

      Step 1 – Creating the wooden template:

      • Local wood is used in this process.
      • The artisan carves the wood and gives it the basic shape of the jutti.
      • These are different for men’s and women’s juttis. For the latter one the front is rounded and there is a slight depression in the center whereas the other one has an elongated front that is curving upwards.

      Step 2 – Preparing the leather:

      This process is done when using pure leather for making the juttis. The leather is cleaned, smoothed and then it is ready to be used to make juttis from it. This is done in the following steps,

      • The process of making a Punjabi jutti starts with processing raw animal hides at a tannery. The vegetable tanning method is used, which involves extracting tannin from the bark of Babool trees. This strengthens the hide, while simultaneously increasing its flexibility and making it water-resistant.
      • After this, the raw leather is washed.
      • Then it is rubbed with mustard oil or butter milk, to clean it thoroughly.
      • Stone and iron are used to scrape it. Thus, making the surface clean and smooth.
      • Lastly, it is beaten using Summa or Morga to make it hard and ready for creating the juttis.

      For making the juttis out of Rexin, this process is not required, as it is directly available.

      Step 3 – The jutti is made of essentially three sections: the sole, the front upper and back.  the process of making the jutti starts and it happens in three parts,

      1. Sole
      • Mochi die-cuts the leather according to the size and shape of the sole. Mainly they have a wire frame ready which they just have to trace on the leather and then cut it.
      • The Ramba is used to cut the leather and two of these pieces are cut for one sole.
      • Now the form sheet is cut, making sure that its size is smaller than the size of the sole. This is stuck in between the two leather pieces and then the edges are pressed using a mallet. The outer layer of the sole is called the Talla and the second, inner layer is called the Patava. Artisans used different materials as a measure to cut out these different parts.
      • This forms the insole, padding and sole of the jutti.
      • Some leather from the front of this prepared sole is skimmed, to make space for attaching the upper.
      1. Upper
      • Stencils are prepared according to the size, form and design of the upper, Panna or the front part of the jutti.
      • After the leather is cut, it is placed on a fabric and the fabric is cut according to its size. This will be stuck on the top of the upper or Panna.
      • Designs can also be created on these using different types and shapes of punching machines. The embroidery is done on the Panna using traced designs of design papers as a guide, depending on the style of production.
      • Now the upper is embellished using gems, jewels, pearls and metallic threads. This is mainly done by the women as the men are involved in the cutting and stitching of the jutti.
      • Once they are done, they are stitched to the sole and the wooden stencil made earlier is kept inside this to stretch the jutti and give it its form.
      1. Back
      • The shape required for the back is drawn and cut from the leather. Two of these are cut.
      • A hardboard sheet is stuck on the leather piece to make it stiff. And then the second sheet of the same is glued on top of it.
      • A mullet is used to press and beat it, to make sure that it sticks properly.
      • Also if a men’s jutti is being made then the upturn is made separately and then attached at the end.
      • This back is then pinned on the upper and sole created earlier and then they are sewn together with cotton, and a strip of goatskin is attached to the inner part. Despite of all the machines, this stitching part is mainly done by hand.
      • In the rexin pasting technique, the rexin piping is machine stitched, the Panna is heated and softened to mold on Kalboot with jambur. This is then pasted to the Talla with rubber adhesive.
      • Finally, the toe, instep, and heel moulds are inserted to stretch the jutti and help maintain the shape.

      The outer sole is softened with a softening solution and then it is stitched to the prepared jutti.

      Step 4 – Painting the jutti:

      • Once it is stitched and ready, the jutti is either stained or painted. This gives it a finished look.
      • They are dried after that.

      Step 5 – Embellishing:

      • Final embellishments are applied on the jutti and sometimes they are even hand painted

      Step 6 – Finishing

      • After that the mocha gives the jutti a final look and cuts all the extra strands of threads.


      The leather used in the making of these juttis, is mostly chrome-tanned in the tanneries and the waste that comes out of it is hazardous to the environment. Since it contains a high quantity of chromium and other pollutants like sulfides, acids and lime sludge.

      Water is also wasted in a huge quantity for every ton of hide that is processed i.e. around 15,000 gallons of water. This water which is contaminated with all the chemicals is then let out in the environment as groundwater, which then adversely affects the health of the people who live near these tanneries. It can cause diseases like cancer, asthma and bronchitis.

      Kanpur is an example of one such city where there were more than 10,000 tanneries and they were found dumping more than 22 tons of this kind of liquid waste everyday into the Ganges. Though in 2009, strict actions were taken place regarding these tanneries and around 49 of the highest polluting tanneries were shut down and they are still working on reducing this waste.

      Cluster Name: Punjab


      Lively, vibrant and colorful such is the state of Punjab. It derives its name from two words ‘Punj’ meaning ‘Five’ and ‘Aab’ meaning ‘Water’. Land of five rivers, Beas, Chenab, Sutlaj, Ravi and Jhelum it has majority of Sikh people residing here and thus the culture and tradition is influenced mainly by them and is famous worldwide. Be it its cuisine, language, attire or dance form, Punjab is full of energy and life. In addition, it also has rich heritage which reflects throughout the state. It is truly a complete mix of modernity and traditional values.

      District / State
      Punjab / Punjab
      2.8 crores
      Punjabi, hindi and english
      Best time to visit
      mainly in the months of February and march
      Stay at
      Local hotels
      How to reach
      Connected through railway and flights from all the major cities
      Local travel
      Auto Rickshaws, Public and Private buses, taxis
      Must eat
      Aloo Paratha, Chole Kulcha, Butter chicken


      Established in 1763 by Jat Sikh chieftain Ala Singh, Patiala state faced prolonged power struggles with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire, and the Sikh Empire after the Third Battle of Panipat. Collaborating with the British in 1808, the Raja of Patiala made the state a 17-gun salute entity during the British Raj. The city's architecture, influenced by temple design, originated with the settlement of Hindus from Sirhind. Surrounded by Fatehgarh Sahib, Rupnagar, Chandigarh, Sangrur, and Haryana, Patiala holds historical significance through political alliances and architectural planning.

      The first known documentation of the word ‘Punjab’ is in the writings of Ibn Batuta, who visited the region in the 14th century. The term came into wider use in the second half of the 16th century, and was used in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah Suri (1580), which describes the construction of a fort by ‘Sher Khan of Punjab’.

      Reference of ‘Punjab’ can also be found in volume one of “Ain-e-Akbari”, written by Abul Fazal, where ‘Punjab’ describes the territory that can be divided into provinces of Lahore and Multan.

      However, the first mentioning of Sanskrit equivalent of ‘Punjab’ occurs in the great epic, the Mahabharata, where it is described as pancha-nada, which means ‘country of five rivers’. The Mughal King Jahangir also mentions the word Panjab in ‘Tuzk-i-Janhageeri’, derived from Persian and introduced by the Turkic conquerors of India, literally means “five” (panj) “waters” (ab), i.e., the Land of Five Rivers, referring to the five rivers which go through it. It was because of this that it was made the granary of British India.

      It is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world with a distinguished culture. Punjabi language has its origins in the Indo-European family of languages which included Persian and Latin. A land of ethnic and religious diversity, it is birth place of a number of religious movements. Some of the prominent ones include Sikhism, Buddhism and many Sufi schools of Islam.

      The Indian State of Punjab was created in 1947, when the partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan’s Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh eastern part became India’s Punjab state. The partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence, as many Sikhs and Hindus lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of Indian Punjab.

      In 1950, two separate states were created; Punjab included the former Raj province of Punjab, while the princely states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kalsia were combined into a new state, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Himachal Pradesh was created as a union territory from several princely states and Kangra District.


      Patiala is located at 30.32°N 76.40°E It has an average elevation of 250 metres (820 feet). During the short existence of PEPSU, Patiala served as its capital city.

      Punjab is a state located on the north western region of India. It is bounded by Jammu and Kashmir union territory to the north, Himachal Pradesh state to the northeast, Haryana state to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan state to the southwest and by the country of Pakistan to the west.

      Punjab’s total area is 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles).  Its average elevation is 300 meters (980 ft.) above sea level, with a range from 180 meters (590 ft.) in the southwest to more than 500 meters (1,600 ft.) around the northeast border. Punjab extends from the latitudes 29.30° North to 32.32° North and longitudes 73.55° East to 76.50° East.


      The climate of Punjab is continental i.e. semiarid to semi humid. Here it is very hot during summers, especially in June the daily temperature can reach up to 100-degree F to a low of around 70-degree F. January is the coolest month here and the temperature ranges from mid-40-degree F to mid-60-degree F. Siwalik Range has the highest annual rainfall. It mainly occurs from July to September.


      Patiala Municipal Corporation (PMC) is the local body responsible for governing, developing and managing the city. PMC is further divided into 60 municipal wards.

      Patiala consists of three assembly constituencies: Patiala Urban, Patiala Rural, and Sanaur. It is connected to cities like Ambala, Kaithal, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Delhi etc. by road. Patiala is well connected to cities like Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Amritsar, on NH 1. The nearest domestic airport is Chandigarh Airport, which is approximately 62 km (39 mi) from the city.

      The road networks found in Punjab are one of the most well developed in the country and it also has the best infrastructure in the country. These extend to most of the villages and also connect to a number of national highways. It has 2,100 km of rail infrastructure, 64,000 km of roads and 5 airports.


      Patiala city boasts significant and picturesque monuments that reflect its rich history and the evolution of its people over the years like Qila Mubarak, Moti Bagh Palace, Sheesh Mahal and Museum, Government Mohindra College, Baradari Gardens, Bahadurgarh Fort.

      The historical architecture of Punjab had its influence from Buddhism, Sufism and Hinduism. Along with that the Mughal palace style of architecture was predominantly adopted and can be seen even today. Remains of Buddhist architecture have been found here through excavation. Sanghol in Ludhiana district represents the location of a Buddhist establishment. Remains of Dharma- chakra- Stupa was found at Sanghol. The Buddhist monasteries of the seventh century were the most outstanding architecture of Punjab.

      The Golden temple in Amritsar is one of the best architectural structures found in Punjab. It is a holy place for the Sikhs and is famous worldwide. The Golden temple was constructed in the year 1764 and later in 1802 Ranjit Singh established the Sikh kingdom and plated the roof with gold and what was originally Hari Mandir came to be called the Golden Temple. The main building is rather small and is built in the middle of a tank, which gives the appearance of floating on water. The temple, its surrounding precincts made of marble and the water in the tank, all appear pure, different and extraordinary. The central building is designed in the latter Mughal style. The Yadavindra garden at Pinjore is influenced from the open terrace-style Mughal garden. The water canal in the centre of the garden passes through seven open terraces and pavilions and is decorated with chadars and fountain.

      The capital of Punjab, Chandigarh is one of the best examples of modern architecture.  The city is divided into forty-seven sectors and the focal point is the capital complex and the civic centre. The orderly design, wide roads and well-planned facilities with a leaning towards modernism, make it an ideal 'garden city' and a bible for architects. Chandigarh has become a symbol of youth and its people are proud of its state-of-the-art-city status. The urban planning of Chandigarh was done by French architect-planner Le Corbusier. Chandigarh is very different from traditional cities. The terrace garden is a major tourist attraction of Chandigarh. The big sun-screen and the three-dimensional effect, along with the interior spaces, present a suitably fantastic picture, without contradicting traditional Indian architecture. The museum that was built later is a replica of the museum in Ahmedabad and the National Western Museum in Tokyo. The rock garden of Chandigarh resembles the Sam's Tower in America. This rock-garden was created as a counterbalance to the very functional, geometric city of Chandigarh. It is a rock garden with self-styled, uninhibited sculptures.

      From the ancient architecture till the present day, the architecture of Punjab has come a long way. Whether it is the Buddhist monuments or the Mughal structural design or the contemporary city of Chandigarh, architectural beauty of Punjab is captivating and awe-inspiring.


      Patiala, extending its influence beyond politics in the Malwa region, was a center for religious, cultural, and educational advancements. Home to the first degree college in the region, Mohindra College, established in 1870, Patiala played a pivotal role in education. The city boasts a unique architectural style, blending Rajput influences with local traditions. Notably, Phul Cinema on the Mall showcases Art Deco design. The Maharajas of Patiala nurtured the renowned " Patiala Gharana " in Hindustani music, attracting celebrated musicians like Ustad Ali Bux and his sons, Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan. This musical tradition continues to thrive with state patronage through the North-Zone Culture Centre in Patiala.

      Punjabi culture is very vibrant, colourful and full of life. Be it their food, attires or their dance forms everything is known and loved by the people all over the world. When it comes to the languages spoken, mainly the locals communicate in Punjabi. Along with that they also speak Hindi and English. As Punjab is a diverse state, the language spoken here also differs in its dialect as we move across the state. The popular dialects are Dhabi, Ghebi, Malwai, Pahari, Shahpuri, Rachnavi, Hindko. These dialects are mainly of the Eastern Punjabi, spoken in the Indian region of Punjab. One of the dialects included in the Western Punjabi, spoken in the regions of Punjab located in Pakistan, called Lahnda, is the tenth most spoken language in the world in terms of its native speakers. This is how vast and diverse.

      Punjabi culture is and it can also be seen in the festivals they celebrate. They celebrate a lot of festivals including Navratri, eid, Christmas, Raksha Bandhan, Dussehra and many more. Some of the main festivals celebrated there are Lohri and Vaisakhi. During the celebrations they perform native dance forms known as Bhangra and Gidda. Sammi and Luddhi are also some of the other popular dance forms of Punjab. Traditionally done on the beats of dhol to welcome the harvest season, this dance form is so full of energy that it has become hugely popular worldwide

      Punjabi cuisine is a true representation of their cultutre, as it is hearty and is full of flavour, made using dollops of butter or makkhan and ghee. The local dishes like Sarson ka Saag and Makke di Roti, various Prathas like Aloo de paratha and Gobhi de paratha, Butter chicken, Chole and Kulcha are widely famous and people come from all over the world to try these delicious delicacies. This also includes a tall glass of Lassi, without which any meal is incomplete.

      Punjab also has a rich heritage and it is depicted in its handmade crafts. Some of them include jutti making, the Phulkari embroidery, basketry and wood work.


      The population of Punjab is mainly divided into two communities: Khatri & Jat. They largely do farming, however, now with globalization, people of Punjab are including in trade as well.

      Apart from these two communities, a large number of Migrants who generally come from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar live in Punjab. The migration of these people have also influenced the outfits of the people living in Punjab. The youngsters these days, wear jeans, shorts, shirts and other modern attires. Though the traditional attires still remain common amongst the locals. The women largely wear colourful Salwar and Kameez, also known as suits. These suits have high embroidery work and are intricately designed. The turban worn by the men is a great resemblance of their culture and they wear it all the time no matter in which corner of the world they are in and they take great pride in it. Kurta is a traditional Punjabi dress for men and a loose & baggy pyjama is worn on the lower portion. When it comes to footwear, Punjabis prefer to wear Jooti with heavy embroidery work.  This is the favourite footwear of both men and women of Punjab. The Punjabi people are full of life and can make anyone feel at home. The major religion of the people of Punjab is Sikhism. Though people from various religions like hindu and muslim are also there.

      Famous For:

      In popular culture, the city remains famous for its traditional Patiala shahi turban, paranda, Patiala salwar, jutti and Patiala peg. Punjab city is celebrated for its vibrant cultural tapestry, featuring iconic elements such as the energetic Bhangra dance and the lively celebrations of the Baisakhi festival. The city's culinary delights are a feast for the senses, offering mouth-watering dishes like Aloo Paratha with makkhan, Chole Kulcha, Butter Chicken, and refreshing Lassi. Among its architectural treasures, the resplendent Golden Temple stands as a spiritual and cultural landmark. The picturesque Sukhna Lake provides a serene retreat. The city is also recognized for its traditional Punjabi Jutties, a distinctive style of footwear, and the intricate Phulkari embroidery, showcasing the region's rich artistic heritage. Overall, Punjab city is a vibrant hub where culture, tradition, and culinary excellence converge in a harmonious blend.


      List of craftsmen.

      Documentation by:

      Team Gaatha

      Process Reference:


      Jutti, Mojari & Nagra











      Cluster Reference:

      https://patiala.nic.in/ https://www.utsavpedia.com/attires/put-your-best-foot-forward-in-traditional-indian-juttis/ https://www.saddapind.co.in/blog/punjabi-jutti/punjabi-jutti/ http://punjabijuttistore.com/punjabijutti https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20113188567 http://chitrolekha.com/ns/v4n1/v4n102.pdf https://www.ritiriwaz.com/the-footwear-once-worn-by-men-and-women-in-india/ https://www.oatext.com/emerging-pollutants-related-toxicity-and-water-quality-decreasing-tannery-textile-and-pharmaceuticals-load-pollutants.php https://www.hindustantimes.com/punjab/ngt-orders-closure-of-19-tanneries-in-jalandhar/story-NQgaARzr682I4O1QkuPmnL.html https://artsandculture.google.com/search/exhibit?q=jutti https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jutti https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patiala