In the thriving city of Bhubaneswar, skilled stone carving artisans engage in the meticulous craft of producing iconic religious symbols, luxurious goods, and intricate artworks. Working with stones ranging from hard granite to semi-hard sandstone and softer varieties, these artisans blend tradition with innovation, showcasing the diverse applications of stone carving in religious, functional, and artistic realms.

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      When it comes to usages of the stone products, we can simply divide in to two category
      one daily utility based products like water pot for animal, masala grinder, Chakki (to grind the grain) etc
      Decorative or Decorative functional products, Stone carving artisans in Bhubaneswar primarily focus on producing icons, luxury goods and artwork. The products from this cluster include traditional icons of deities, Animals and various souvenirs & utility items such as Konark charka, dancing girl figurines, stone cups, lamps, pen stands, visiting cardholders, and more. While the repertoire extends to household utensils like water storage pots and dining plates, the specialization in crafting sacred wares and luxury goods showcases the diverse applications of stone carving in creating religious, functional and artistic items.


      From ancient times, humans extensively used three materials: wood, clay, and stone. When it comes to durability, stone is the most preferable option. Even thousands of years later, temples and monuments stand tall. They are not merely buildings; they are documents of their time, a testament to the architects and artisans of that era. While text on paper, leaves, or even metal may endure for only a few hundred years, inscriptions on stone can last for thousands of years. Today, by examining these stone carvings and written “silalekh,” we can understand the history and philosophy of that time. In Odisha, inscriptions are found in various forms and at different locations. Pictographs, the earliest examples of inscriptions, are found in rock shelters in the hills of Sundargarh, Sambalpur, and Kalahandi districts, such as the Vikramkhol, Yogimath, and Gudahandi rock art sites. Although not properly deciphered, these earliest signs and pictographs express the ideas of the people who lived in Odisha during the prehistoric period.

      Stone carvers showcase their craftsmanship using various types of stones, including hard granite, semi-hard sandstone, and soft stones. While hard granite and semi-hard sandstone offer durability and strength, artisans often prefer working with soft stones due to their ease of carving using simple tools and relatively lower cost. Soft stones come in two main types: pink and white.

      Stone carving is a profound handicraft tradition that has left an indelible mark on the cultural and architectural heritage of the region. Skilled artisans, through centuries of disciplined efforts, have elevated this craft to heights of excellence. Temples like Parsurameswar, Mukteswar, Lingaraja, and the Jagannatha Temple, with their intricate stone carvings, stand as a testament to the artistry passed down through generations. The Konark Sun Temple, a wonder in stone, showcases detailed carvings depicting various facets of life. Additionally, stupas and monasteries like those in Lalitagiri, Ratnagiri, and Udayagiri preserve the sculptural traditions of the artisans’ forefathers. The rock-cut sculptures, caves, and temples adorned with beautifully carved statues reflect the rich and diverse cultural heritage. This tradition, perfected through generations, continues to contribute to the enduring legacy of the region’s artistic expression and skills.

      The abundant availability of sandstones, locally known as Khondolite stone or Sahana Pathar, is notable in areas like Tapangagarh and Ghatikia in Khurda district, as well as Lalitgiri in Cuttack district. Additionally, soft stones, referred to as Khadi Pathar in local dialects, are found in Balasore, Keonjhar, and Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa. This diverse range of stones provides stone carvers with various options for their artistic endeavors, contributing to the rich tradition of stone carving in the region.

      Myths & Legends:


      Historically, stone carving has been widespread across India, evident in various forms such as caves, temples, beads, forts, etc. Different styles of stone carving emerge based on skills and material availability. For example, marble, sandstone, and flaggy limestone are predominantly found in the states of Orissa and Rajasthan. Carving on slate stone is practiced in Himachal Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, while granite is extensively used throughout the Southern Peninsula, covering states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. These diverse regions contribute to India’s rich tradition of stone craftsmanship, each with its unique styles and techniques.

      Odisha has a rich tribal settlement native to the region for thousands of years. Concerning urban settlements, Asurgarh is a site that dates back to the 8th-9th century BC, emerging as one of the early urban fortified settlements in the region, even older than Sisupalgarh. Archaeological excavations have revealed various artifacts, including carved pendants, beads made of precious and semi-precious stones, and glass.

      The Chalcolithic and early Iron Age culture in Odisha saw specialization in stone and bone tools, pottery, bead-making, and iron. The early historic period (3rd century BC-3rd century CE) witnessed a greater intensification of resource exploitation and use. Budhigarh’s cultural assemblage includes semi-precious stones, a banded agate bowl, smoking pipe, and finely levigated early historic potteries, attesting to the degree of craft specialization achieved in western Orissa. Luxury goods found from the site include an ivory comb, a bowl of agate, seals fashioned from jasper, and numerous beads fashioned from semi-precious stones.

      Historically Odisha, known variably as Kalinga, Utkala, and Odra in different periods of its history, once had territories extending from the river Ganges/Tamralipti in the north to the river Godavari in the south. The historic Kalinga War is a remarkable event in Indian history, and after this war, Emperor Ashoka energetically supported the propagation and spread of Buddhism. Early specimens of Orissan art include the colossal figure of a forepart of an elephant carved on the boulder containing Ashoka’s edicts at Dhauli, located about 8-10 kms from Bhubaneswar. Another significant relic is an Ashokan pillar, now housed within the Bhaskareswar Temple in Bhubaneswar, later converted into a Shivalingam, marking the nascent stages of Orissan art and architecture.

      Sisupalgarh, located approximately a kilometer east of Bhubaneswar, represents a well-planned and fortified ancient fort, with excavations revealing its origins dating back to the 4th century B.C. The subsequent phase is characterized by the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves, housing rock-cut caves intended for Jaina ascetics. The Hatigumpha inscription on Udayagiri hill vividly accounts for Emperor Kharavela’s reign and campaigns. These caves feature grand art and architecture, showcasing base-reliefs depicting Jaina pantheons, objects of devotion, and panoramic views of sacred tree worship or symbols.

      The subsequent political history of Orissa is considered a dark period, but Naga and Yakshya images discovered in Bhubaneswar, housed in the Orissa State Museum, can be assigned to this era. These artifacts, similar to those found in Sanchi, Mathura, and Rajgir, can be safely dated to the 1st or 2nd century A.D., indicating the continued popularity of Naga and Yaksha worship in Orissa after the decline of Kharavela’s dynasty and the setback faced by Jainism during that period.

      The glory of stone carving in Odisha can be explored in its magnificent temples. The history of temple building in Odisha is said to have begun with Axamanesvara, Bharatesvara, and Satrughnesvara group of temples at Bhubaneswar in the 6th century A.D., culminating with the Sun Temple of Konarka in the 13th century AD. The earliest surviving temples at Bhubaneswar are the three ruined temples like Laksamaneswar, Bharateswar, and Satrughneswar, with their dates assigned to the later half of the 6th century AD.

      During the Somavansi rule, the synthesis between Shaivism and Vaishnavism reached its climax in the Lingaraj temple of Bhubaneswar. According to some accounts, the temple is believed to have been built by the Somavanshi king Yayati I (1025-1040) during the 11th century CE. Jajati Keshari shifted his capital from Jajpur to Bhubaneswar, referred to as Ekamra Kshetra in the Brahma Purana, an ancient scripture.

      Stone-carved torans/swings are visible at many places, serving various purposes. These swings/toranas, reptilian arches, have slots for setting up the royal swing and flaming torches.

      From 1000 CE to 1200 CE, Odisha developed a unique aesthetic and style. Even after thousands of years, the style remains the identity of Odisha. Today, artisans continue to create sculptures in the same aesthetic style, with the only difference being the purpose. Small Konark Charka sculptures are bought as souvenirs, and the size of the gods and goddesses is reduced for items like pen stands, center tables, or tea coasters.

      In the state of Orissa, there are a total of 5,620 stone-carving artisans, collectively contributing to an annual production status of 688.26 Lacs. Recognized as a ‘Craft with development potential’ by the Directorate of Handicrafts & Cottage Industries, Orissa, stone carving holds a significant place in the local handicraft sector. The prominent stone carving cluster is spread over parts of Puri, Konark, and Bhubaneswar, reflecting the concentration and importance of this craft in the region.

      Artisans in the Bhubaneswar stone carving cluster note that before the 1970s, there was limited stone carving activity in the region, primarily associated with the construction of temples. However, this activity was part-time and did not provide a consistent source of livelihood for the artisans. The surge in stone carving as a dedicated craft, producing a variety of products beyond temple construction, has likely contributed to the growth and sustenance of the artisan community in the cluster.

      The aim of the board is to promote the handicraft sector and artisans in the state. In the 1970s, during a crisis period, the DC-Handicrafts office took crucial steps to revive the traditional art of stone carving. These initiatives included providing training to aspiring artisans to enhance their skills in the craft and offering marketing support. Subsequently, the Directorate of Handicrafts, Government of Orissa, actively engaged in the direct marketing of handicraft products. The establishment of its own marketing outlet, Utkalika, at various strategic locations within and outside the state further contributed to the promotion and sustainability of stone carving as a traditional craft. Many production unit owners of Bhubaneswar belong to Konark and Puri. With their success in business, more and more skilled artisans shifted to Bhubaneswar and opened their workshops to cater to the domestic market at the local as well as national levels.

      The Cluster Development Approach includes the Craft Village Scheme (Shilpi Gram Yojana) and focuses on forming Self-Help Groups (SHGs), capacity building, financial linkage with banks, and training for production and design upgrades. Marketing initiatives involve collaborations with Utkalika, exporters, and handicraft emporiums. SIDAC (State Institute for Development of Arts & Crafts) was established in 2004 as an extension, implementing activities such as ITI training, field-level training institutes, design development, and the implementation of the Rehabilitation of Handicraft (RHA) scheme. Artisan cooperative societies and Self-Help Groups (SHGs) have been formed in the cluster, facilitated by NGOs, but challenges in addressing business issues persist.

      Presently, numerous families make their livelihood by engaging in this stone craft, and many skilled craftsmen have received recognition at the national and state levels for their exceptional contributions to this art form.


      In the stone carving two types of stones are predominantly used: soft stone and sandstone. Most household enterprises work with soft stone, which, although easier to carve, has limitations when it comes to sculpting larger statues. Sizes beyond 3 feet are challenging to achieve in soft stone. However, soft stone is well-suited for intricate and fine artwork due to its softer composition.

      The procurement process for sandstone and soft stone in the stone carving is directly sourced from mines by contacting contractors. In contrast, soft stone is obtained from local traders, who, in turn, purchase the stone from mines.

      The craftsmen in the cluster follow to the ‘Shilpashastra’ (Ancient guideline) for their craft. The intricate motifs found in the temples of Konark, Puri, and Bhubaneswar serve as a constant source of inspiration for creating beautiful art pieces.

      In addition, other motifs prevalent in the stone carvings include representations of deities from the Hindu pantheon such as Krishna and Radha, Laxmi, Vishnu, Durga, Buddha, Ganesa, ‘Haraparvati,’ Nrusingha, and more.

      The stone carvings from this cluster are distinguished by their unique identity, which is based on temple motifs, making the products highly attractive and creating a niche market. These designs are internationally renowned for their beauty, and craftsmen view the temple motifs as open albums from which they can derive unique designs. Additional features, such as the addition of a tree to a standing danseuse or placing icons of Gods inside a conch or on a leaf, are incorporated to enhance attractiveness and cater to market demand.


      adoption of modern technologies and machinery may pose challenges for traditional artisans who may need to adapt to new tools and techniques.

      Economic Challenges: Economic factors such as fluctuating market demand, pricing pressures, and the cost of raw materials can impact the livelihoods of stone carvers.

      Skill Preservation and Succession: The transmission of stone carving skills from one generation to the next can be challenging. Younger generations may be less inclined to pursue traditional crafts, leading to a potential loss of skills and knowledge.

      Market Access and Globalization: The globalization of markets can bring both opportunities and challenges. While it opens up new avenues for selling products, local artisans may face competition from cheaper mass-produced alternatives.

      Promotion and Marketing: Effective promotion and marketing of stone-carved products are essential for sustaining the craft. Artisans may face challenges in reaching a broader audience and establishing a market presence.

      Introduction Process:

      The process of stone carving sounds very simple, but it requires extensive knowledge of materials and iconography. There is no undo step in stone carving, and if you are carving for religious purposes, not a single piece of idol can be replaced. Therefore, craftsmen need extensive patience and care for the material, as one wrong stroke can break months of effort.

      Raw Materials:

      Stone: The primary raw material for stone carving production is the stone itself, which poses challenges due to its bulkiness, weight, and availability. The stones are manually extracted from mines, a time-consuming process that involves lifting heavy loads. Artisans use a variety of stones like sandstone, soapstone, serpentinite, Makrana marble, etc., but in Bhubaneswar, Khondalite stone and chlorite are mainly seen.

      1. Kochila Pathara: Khondalite (pinkish or reddish) is a foliated metamorphic rock, also called Bezwada Gneiss and Kailasa Gneiss. It was named after the Khond tribe of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh because well-formed examples of the rock were found in the inhabited hills of these regions of eastern India.
      2. Sahana Pathara: Chlorite (grey or green) is slightly harder compared to Khondalite.
      3. Sandstone: Cream-colored stone is a cheaper option compared to the above two; sandstone is also easy to handle and mostly useful for outdoor decorative or larger sculptures.

      Sandpaper: After carving, artisans use sandpaper to make the stone surface smooth, giving it a finished look.

      Pencil or charcoal: To draw the initial figure on the stone.

      Tools & Tech:

      Craftsmen employ various tools of different sizes and shapes in the stone carving process. These tools can be divided into four simple categories:

      Cutting Tools:

      Saw: Utilized for cutting stones.

      Power tools, such as stone cutter machines, are used to cut the stone into the required shape. To save time and effort, artisans nowadays also use simple hand cutters to remove the extra stones from the raw stone.

      Carving Tools:

      Lettering Chisels: Used for incising small strokes to create the details of letters in larger applications.

      Fishtail Chisels: Flat from the front, these are used to create pockets or intricate carving, providing good visibility around the stone.

      Masonry Chisels: Used for the general shaping of stones.

      Stone Point Tools: Used to rough out the surface of the stone.

      Stone Claw Tools: Used to remove the peaks and troughs left from the previously used tools.

      Stone Pitching Tools: Used to remove large quantities of stone.

      Stone Nickers: Used to split stones by tracing a line along the stone with progressive strikes until the stone breaks along the line.

      Hammer/Hitting Tools:

      Powered pneumatic hammers make the hard work easier. Progress on shaping stone is faster with pneumatic carving tools.

      Finishing Tools:

      A variety of fine chisels, sandpapers, and other stones are used to clean the carved surface and give it a polished look.

      Measurement instruments
      : steel scale for different measurements

      Tools sharpening tools: to sharpen the chisel head

      In larger craft production units, machines are employed for standard tasks like electric saws for cutting and sizing stone logs, grinding machines for hole-making, and polishing using a different head on the grinding machine.



      The craftsmen in the stone carving cluster are divided into two main categories: skilled craftsmen and semi-skilled craftsmen. Skilled craftsmen possess the expertise needed to create high-quality products with intricate artistry. They excel in drawing sketches on stone, initiating the carving process, and overseeing the overall quality. After the initial carving, less skilled artisans take over, deepening the carvings as required. Skilled craftsmen conduct final inspections, make necessary modifications, and add finer carvings when needed. They guide artisans in the production process and typically handle delicate tasks such as carving the face of statues. With years of experience, skilled craftsmen earn around ₹6,000 per month.

      On the other hand, semi-skilled craftsmen are capable of producing smaller items with a lower skill level. They can also carve larger statues after the initial carving by skilled artisans. Many artisans working from their households fall into this category. Craft production units in the cluster employ around 80-90 skilled craftsmen and 450 semi-skilled artisans. Semi-skilled artisans earn an average of ₹10000 to ₹15,000 per month.

      The process of stone carving involves several stages:

      Step 1 – The raw stone is cut to the desired size using a saw and chisel, with an emphasis on achieving a larger size to increase the product’s value. The artisan then sketches the desired design with a pencil and shapes it using a chisel. The artist usually begins by knocking off large portions of unwanted stone. For this task, they select a point chisel with a point at one end and a broad striking surface at the other. The pitching tool is useful for splitting the stone and removing large, unwanted chunks. These two chisels are used in combination with a mason’s driving hammer. Nowadays, artisans also use power hand cutters to remove extra stone.

      Step 2 – Once the general shape of the statue has been determined, the sculptor uses other tools to refine the figure. A toothed chisel or claw chisel has multiple gouging surfaces that create parallel lines in the stone. The stone carver generally uses a shallower stroke at this point in the process, usually in combination with a wooden mallet. Eventually, the sculptor has changed the stone from a rough block into the general shape of the finished statue. Tools called rasps and rifflers are then used to enhance the shape into its final form. The sculptor uses broad, sweeping strokes to remove excess stone as small chips or dust. A riffler is a smaller variation of the rasp, which can be used to create details such as folds of clothing or locks of hair.

      Step 3 – Randha or Sandpaper is used for smoothing or polishing at this stage. Tin and iron oxides are often used to give the stone a highly reflective exterior.

      Step 4 – The artisan focuses on making the item attractive and beautiful. Ornamentations are added to enhance the value. Sometimes transparent liquids like lacquer or wax are applied to highlight the contours of the statue.During final finish, Ornamentation are added to enhance the value. Sometimes transparent liquids like lacquer or wax are applied to highlight the contours of the statue.



      Stone Dust and Debris: Grinding, shaping, and carving stones can produce a significant amount of stone dust and small stone particles.

      Scrap Stone Pieces: Larger stone pieces that are cut away or deemed unusable during the carving process can become scrap. These may be irregularly shaped or contain imperfections that make them unsuitable for the final product.

      Water and Slurry Waste: Water is often used during the stone carving process to cool tools and reduce dust. This can result in the generation of slurry waste, a mixture of water and stone particles.

      Broken or Defective Carvings: Carvings that do not meet quality standards or are damaged during the carving process may be considered waste.

      Cluster Name: Bhubaneshwar


      Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha, has a rich historical legacy dating back to the 7th century BCE.

      District / State
      Bhubaneshwar / Bhubaneshwar
      837737 (total): 445,233- males; 392504- females
      Best time to visit

      Stay at
      Many good hotels in Bhubaneshwar like Mayfair Lagoon, and other good hotels in the city.
      How to reach
      Airport, Train and Bus
      Local travel
      Auto-rickshaws and Buses
      Must eat
      Rice and a fish curry known as Machha Jhola, Rasagola,


      Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha, has a rich historical legacy dating back to the 7th century BCE. Situated near the ancient capital of Kalinga, Sisupalgarh, the region witnessed significant events such as the Kalinga War (c. 262-261 BCE), famously documented by Emperor Ashoka. His rock edict, dating between 272 and 236 BCE, can be found southwest of the city. Throughout its history, the area was ruled by various dynasties, including the Mauryas, Mahameghavahanas, Somavamshi, Keshari, and Eastern Gangas.

      The architectural marvels of Bhubaneswar, particularly its temples, were predominantly built between the 8th and 12th centuries under Shaiva influence. However, the Karrani dynasty's rule in 1568 led to the destruction of many structures. In the 16th century, Mughals took control, succeeded by the Marathas in the mid-18th century. British colonial rule began in 1803, and in 1948, Bhubaneswar was chosen as the new capital. Today, Bhubaneswar is not only a historical hub but also a thriving modern city with educational and business significance.

      The city is aptly called the "Temple City," owing to the presence of 700 temples in its past. This city, with its blend of history and modernity, plays a crucial role in the cultural and economic landscape of Odisha.

      Bhubaneswar serves as a confluence of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain heritage, boasting several Kalingan temples, many of which originated between the 6th and 13th centuries CE. Together with Puri and Konark, it forms the "Swarna Tribhuja" or 'Golden Triangle,' becoming one of Eastern India's most visited destinations. This rich historical tapestry contributes to the city's cultural significance and draws visitors seeking a glimpse into India's diverse heritage.

      Bhubaneswar took over the role of the capital from Cuttack on 19 August 1949, just two years after India gained independence from Britain. Often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha,' Bhubaneswar and Cuttack jointly form a metropolitan area with a population of 1.7 million as of 2011. The Bhubaneswar metro area, classified as a Tier-2 city, houses around a million residents. Both Bhubaneswar and Rourkela are pivotal participants in Odisha's smart city mission, reflecting their commitment to urban development and innovation.

      Over time, Bhubaneswar has evolved into a prominent education hub and a thriving business destination.


      Located in the eastern coastal plains along the Eastern Ghats mountains, Bhubaneswar occupies an average altitude of 45 meters (148 feet) above sea level. Positioned to the southwest of the Mahanadi River, which forms its northern boundary, the city is delineated by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east. The topography of Bhubaneswar is characterized by western uplands and eastern lowlands, featuring hillocks in the western and northern parts. Notably, Kanjia Lake, situated on the northern outskirts, stands as a wetland of national importance, boasting rich biodiversity.

      The city's soil composition consists of 65% laterite, 25% alluvial, and 10% sandstone. Falling within seismic zone III, Bhubaneswar is moderately susceptible to earthquakes. Additionally, it faces a "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones, as reported by the United Nations Development Programme. The aftermath of the 1999 Odisha cyclone, which caused significant damage to buildings, infrastructure, and claimed numerous lives, underscores this vulnerability. Unplanned urban growth has contributed to common issues such as floods and waterlogging in low-lying areas, highlighting the importance of sustainable urban planning and disaster preparedness in the region.


      Bhubaneswar has a tropical woodland-grassland climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. Temperatures in Bhubaneswar usually range from 11 to 44 °C.


      Bhubaneswar's urban development area encompasses the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 revenue villages, and two other municipalities, covering a total of 1,110 km2 (430 sq mi). The jurisdiction of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation itself spans 186 square kilometres (72 sq mi). The city exhibits a somewhat dumbbell-shaped growth pattern, with significant expansion occurring to the north, northeast, and southwest. The north–south axis is the widest, spanning approximately 22.5 kilometers (14.0 mi). Growth towards the east is constrained by the Kuakhai River and the wildlife sanctuary in the north western part.

      The planned city, designed in 1948 to serve as the capital, is subdivided into units, each with schools, shopping centres, dispensaries, and play areas.

      The added areas, developed by the Bhubaneswar Development Authority, include Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur, Sailashree Vihar, and Niladri Vihar. The peripheral areas, outside the municipal boundary or subsequently included, comprise localities like Tomando, Patia, and Raghunathpur. The city is divided roughly into North (newer areas) and South Bhubaneswar (older areas) by National Highway 5. The development of these areas was not always well-planned.

      Bhubaneswar, with its Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) developed in 2010, secured the top rank in the Smart City list in India. The Bhubaneswar Development Authority plays a crucial role in planning and development, adhering to the Odisha Development Authorities Act, 1982.

      Bhubaneswar boasts several prestigious institutions that contribute significantly to the educational landscape of the country. Some of the elite institutions located in the city include IIT Bhubaneswar, NISER Bhubaneswar, AIIMS Bhubaneswar, and NIFT Bhubaneswar. Among them, Utkal University Bhubaneswar holds a special place as the oldest university in Odisha and the 17th oldest university in India, playing a pivotal role in the academic heritage of the region. These institutions contribute to the city's reputation as an emerging education hub.

      Bhubaneswar, with its well-connected road network of around 1,600 kilometers, features grid-form roads in the central city. The Baramunda Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT) serves as a major hub, facilitating bus travel to various districts within Odisha and neighboring cities like Hyderabad and Kolkata. The city's Mo Bus service provides convenient transportation, covering major destinations. Auto-rickshaws and cycle rickshaws are also popular modes of travel. In terms of railways, Bhubaneswar is a significant station on the East Coast Railway network, with plans for expansion. The Biju Patnaik International Airport connects the city to domestic and international destinations, with major carriers like Indigo and Vistara operating daily flights.



      Lingaraja Temple: A prominent temple in the city, dedicated to Lord Shiva, showcasing the Kalinga architectural style.

      Muktesvara Temple: Known for its exquisite sculptures, this temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva.

      Rajarani Temple: Famous for its unique architectural style and erotic carvings.

      Ananta Vasudeva Temple: A significant temple dedicated to Lord Krishna.

      Historical and Archaeological Sites:

      Khandagiri and Udayagiri: Twin hills with ancient Jain cave-like chambers dating back to the 2nd century BCE.

      Dhauli: The site of Ashoka's edicts and a Peace Pagoda built by the Japan Buddha Sangha.


      Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha, is renowned for its rich cultural and religious heritage. Here are some key highlights of the city's cultural and artistic landscape:

      Cinema and Arts:

      Classical Odissi Dance: The city is a hub for classical Odissi dance, with institutions like Srjan, founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra.

      Cultural Festivals:

      Ekamra Festival: A cultural festival in January featuring sub-festivals like Kalinga Mahotsaba, Dhauli-Kalinga Mahotsaba, Rajarani Music Festival, and Mukteswara Dance Festival.

      Ratha-Yatra: The famous chariot festival celebrating Lord Jagannatha, held in Odisha and Bhubaneswar.

      Durga Puja: Celebrated in September–October with grand festivities.

      Adivasi Mela: Showcasing the art, artifacts, traditions, and culture of Odisha's tribal communities.

      Educational and Cultural Institutions:

      Odissi Dance Academy Srjan: Founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, a renowned institution for Odissi dance.

      Literary and Art Festivals:

      Kalinga Literary Festival: An international literary festival held in the city.

      Mystic Kalinga Festival: Celebrating literature, arts, and cultures.

      Odisha Literary Fest: A literary festival hosted in Bhubaneswar.

      The city's cultural vibrancy is reflected in its festivals, dance forms, architectural marvels, and diverse artistic expressions.


      As of the 2011 census, Bhubaneswar boasted a population of 837,737, with 445,233 males and 392,504 females. The city's commitment to education is evident in its impressive literacy rates; the overall literacy rate stands at 93.15%, surpassing the national average of 74.04%. Notably, the male literacy rate is an impressive 95.69%, while the female literacy rate is commendable at 90.26%. Even among the younger population, with 75,237 individuals under the age of six, there is a clear focus on early education and literacy.

      Bhubaneswar is a city marked by religious diversity, where Hindus constitute over 95% of the population, according to the 2011 Census of India. Muslims form the second-largest minority at 3.3%, while Christians make up 0.92% of the population. The city is also home to other notable minority communities, including Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains, contributing to the rich cultural and religious tapestry of Bhubaneswar. This demographic makeup underscores the city's pluralistic and inclusive ethos, with various communities coexisting and contributing to the vibrant social fabric of Bhubaneswar. Keep in mind that demographic characteristics may have evolved since the 2011 census, and it's advisable to refer to more recent sources for the latest information.

      Famous For:

      Stone Carving 

      Odisha State Museum: Showcasing archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts, and crafts.

      Tribal Research Institute Museum: Featuring authentic tribal dwellings created by tribal craftsmen.

      Nandankanan Zoological Park: India's first zoo to join the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.

      Ekamra Haat: A hand-loom and handicrafts market.


      List of craftsmen.

      Documentation by:

      Team Gaatha

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